केशवः (23)

This word has two meanings:


  1. Bhagvan with beautiful keshaH (hair). It is purna saguna upasana and Bhagvan has attributes.  By the grace of Bhagvan, a person will be able to perceive the Nirguna Bhagvan (Brahman), without attributes.
  2. It also is a name given to Lord Krishna for defeating the demon Keshi. The demon came in disguise to Vrindavan to kill Krishna.  Narada says in Narada purana that , since the dushta atma Keshi is defeated, Krishna is also KeshavaH.  However, anybody who has demonic qualities is asuraH.


पुरुषोत्तमः (24)

The loftiest of persons who cannot be measured is called uttamaH.  There are 3 levels of PurushaH- uttamaH, madhyamaH, adhamaH purushaH.  The madhyamaH level are those seeking moksha and he is a mumukshuH.  Purusha UttamaH knows he is the Lord himself and is not different from him.

सर्वः (25)

he is the source of everything.  Without clay, pot has no independent existence.  Space in the pot is called pot-space and is limited.  Space is vyoman – pervades everything.  He has sarva vidya – all pervading, all-comprehensive,  all-encompassing knowledge.

शर्वः (26)

it means destroyer.  संहारे समये संहरति  in pralaya, everything gets destroyed and goes into the un-manifest stage.  If something is to be destroyed, there must be creation.  No creation means no destruction.  Therefore, there is only manifestation and un-manifestation.  The destruction is relative and not absolute.

शिवः (27)

It means auspiciousness.  शुभं, मंगलम्, कल्याणं, शुधं, भद्रं are other names.  It is that which is pure, free from defects.  It is free from 3 gunas.

ॐ भद्रं कर्णेभिः शृणुयाम देवाः।

भद्रं पश्येमाक्षभिर्यजत्राः ।

Let my ears hear only auspicious things, let my eyes see only auspicious.  Those who do not see me as shivaH do not know me at all.

स्थाणुः (28) = firm and immoveable.  He is all-pervasive and therefore does not need to go anywhere.  In Narayana suktam:

अन्तर बहिश्च तत् सर्वं व्याप्य नारायणः स्थितः lHe is inside and outside.

भूतादिः (29) = source of all beings.  All names and forms are limited and numerous in number.  Understand that I am the BhutadiH and the Lord of everything – all the 5 elements put together.  Time and space is within me and I transcend everything.  One vastu Brahman is the source of all existence. Just like beads woven in a string, all the jivas are connected to me.

निधि: अव्ययः (30)

NidhiH=treasure, avyayam = imperishable.  Bhagvan as Nidhi is permanent.  He is  always full and complete- never lacking in anything.  In Bhagvad gita Krishna says – I am forgetfulness and remembrance, dharma and adharma.  In the pralaya when everything goes back into unmanifest, they will come back in its full glory of fullness.

सम्भवः (31)

SambhavaH means happening of an event.  Person who makes events happen is SambhavaH.  He can appear in any form – as narsinhavapuH for Hiranyakashipu, death to Kamsa ( Kamsa had so much fear for Krishna that he saw Krishna as ‘death’ wherever he set his eyes upon), as a playmate to Surdas, etc.  all the nama rupas are created by maya shakti under HIS control.  Krishna says- In every yuga, I will come to establish dharma – ‘संभवामि  युगे  युगे’ all the events will happen in the उचित कालः( at the right time); उचित देशः (at the right place); उचित रूपः (in the right form).  These are the 3 different attributes to appear in that appropriate form.