Drg Drsya Viveka Verse 1 to 5

Verse 1
रूपम् दृश्यं लोचनम् दृक्  तदृश्यं  दृक्त्तु मानसम् l

दृश्या धीव्रुत्तयः साक्षी दृगेव न तु दृश्यते ll

Verse 2

नीलपीत स्थूल सूक्ष्म हृस्वदीर्घादि भेदत: l

नाना विधानि रूपाणि पश्येल्लोचनमेकधा ll

Verse 3

आन्ध्यमान्ध्यपटुत्वेषु नेत्रधर्मेषु चैकधा l

संकल्पयेन्मन: श्रोत्रत्वगादौ योज्यतामिदं ll

Verse 4

काम: संकल्पसन्देहौ श्रद्धाSश्रद्धे धृतीतरे  l

हृर्धीर्भीरित्येवमादीन  भासयत्येकधा चिति: ll

Verse 5

नोदेति नास्तमेत्येषा न वृद्धिं याति न क्षयं  l

स्वयं विभात्यथान्यानि भासयेत्साधानं विना ll

Verse 6

Viveka means understanding or having a discriminative knowledge of what is Truth and Untruth.  In our day-to-day life too, we have to use this principle.  For instance, when we buy rice from ration shop, it is mixed with impurities.  We find black stones, red stones, and white coloured stones too.  Mixing stones in rice increases the weight of the rice, thereby increasing the profit margin.  Before cooking we have to separate all the stones from rice.  It is easier to separate coloured stones but not the white coloured ones.  They are so camouflaged in the actual rice that, separating them becomes very difficult.  For separating the impurities we need viveka.  Likewise, our body and consciousness are so entwined that we fail to think of body and consciousness as seperate.  There is no difference between body and consciousness,  The discriminative knowledge of separating both is unavailable.  At this juncture shastram is the only tool with the help of which one can understand the Nitya-anitya vastu viveka.  

In the Katho Upanishad, there is a topic on Shreyas and Preyas.  Shreyas is the path of ultimate Good, giving long term benefits.  Preyas is something that we like, giving short term benefits.  We always have an option of choosing between the long term and short term benefits.  As we go through different stages of life, this becomes difficult.  For instance, when we endure a lot of pain, we go to a doctor for medication.  Temporarily the medicines work.  We revel in the happiness for sometimes.  After a few days the gnawing ache returns.  Like a rollercoaster the cycle of pain and medication continue.  The study of Vedanta leads to moksha meaning it makes us samachit or balanced or sthithapragya.  We neither enjoy or reject any situation.  We do not blame anybody or even our own selves.  It helps to condition and discipline our mind.

Prakriya is a method of analysis.  Panchadashi uses Anvaya vyatirekha.  Bhagwat gita uses Kshetram and Kshetragya principle to separate Atma and Body.  All the prakriya (analysis) cannot be done physically but only cognitively.

One may ask the question, what is the purpose of my studying the analytical methods.  We always have a misconception about ourselves being the attributes and superimpose these attributes on the Atma which is attributeless.  For example we often say – I am short, I am tall, I am rich, I am neglected, etc.  In “I am”, “am” gets added to everything and this is called Adyaropa or superimposition of “am” on the “I”, which is independent and complete by itself.  It becomes necessary in the vyavaharika purposes to identify ourselves with “am”.  To separately understand “I”, the “am” aspect has to be removed which is impermanent.  Due to the entwinement of the shariram and atma, an individual thinks he is that attribute to which he is identifying himself, as he does not have the methodology of separating body-sense-mind-atma complex.

For example, an iron ball, which is black in colour, and cold on the exterior surface, becomes hot and red when exposed to fire.  It also starts glowing after sometime.  Now the iron ball is glowing because of the fire which does not have a form.  It is the fire that is glowing through the upadhi of a ball.  Fire itself is unattached to the ball.  In fact the ball takes the property of the fire.  The iron ball has borrowed the property of fire and so it is hot, and glowing red due to heat.  Similarly, Atma does not have any property of its own – attributeless.  It gets an identity through the body-mind-sense complex which consists of sthoola shariram, sukshma shariram, karana shariram and Atma. 

Drg drishya Viveka is a prakarana granth.  All prakarna granthas are part of Upanishads.  They are short and concise treatise and will never deviate from Upanishad, despite having an independent existence.  They lend support to the teachings of Upanishads.  The unfolding of an individual is different in tattvabodha and Drg drishya viveka.  Study of Vedanta encompasses the following :

1. Jiva – Individual – Analysis of the individual (Vyashti vichara – sukshma, karana, Sthoola shariram)

2. Ishwara – Analysis of the total (samashti)- Macrocosm.

3. Jagat – Analysis of the cosmos or universe

4. Bandhaha – What is samsara

5. Moksha – Freedom from bondage

6. Sadhanani – Means of accomplishing the freedom from bondage.

Unless a person has a vision for studying Vedanta, one cannot continue on this path.  A person studying under a teacher for many years starts glowing with knowledge.

Verse 1

रूपम् दृश्यं लोचनम् दृक्  तदृश्यं  दृक्त्तु मानसम् l

दृश्याधीव्रुत्तयः साक्षी दृगेव न तु दृश्यते ll

Meanings: रूपम् form; दृश्यं is perceived;  लोचनम् eyes;  दृक् perceiver;  तत् that;  दृश्यं  is perceived  दृक् perceiver;  तु but;  मानसम् mind;  दृश्या are perceived;  धीव्रुत्तयः mind’s modifications (like what is to be seen or not to be seen);  साक्षी witness;  दृक् एव is verily the perceiver;  न तु is not;  दृश्यते perceived or seen.

The form is perceived by the eyes( organ of perception).  The perceiver/ seer is perceived/seen by the mind.  The mind is verily perceived/ seen by the sakshi/witness, which is not perceived.

For the external objects, eye is the seer no. 1.  Eye itself is an inert organ.  In some cases, even if golakkam(physical part) is there, a person is blind because of the lack of the the power for reflection.  Without the mind, eye cannot function.  As in the case of an electric bulb, filament and bulb are the upadhi for electricity.  The electricity is lending its existence to the filament and bulb.  

Mind is also inert.  Eye has to be reflected in conjunction with mind.  Mind is also reflected by consciousness or Sakshi or Witness, which cannot be seen.  When a person dies, mind goes away, for non-availability of an upadhi.

Summary: 

1. Eye is the first illuminator reflecting all external objects/forms/colours, etc.  It is Seer no. 1.

2. Mind reflects the eye and lends existence to the golakkam.  Mind is seer no. 2.

3. Mind is reflected by the sakshi or witness.  If witness is not there, mind cannot exist.  Sakshi is the ultimate seer/perceiver.

Same conclusion can be drawn for other sense organs also.  For example, a child is fondled by many people.  However, it can easily find out the touch of its mother.  Sakshi is self illumined.  Perfumes/odors can be distinctly recognized by the one and only sense organ, nose.  Annamaya kosha is one but experiences are many and varied.  Sakshi reveals everything.  That we are alive, able to talk, see, hear, is self evident that consciousness is alive in us.  It cannot be seen or described.  When the mind, which itself is illumined by Atma, can travel at a great speed, then we can imagine the ultimate seer, consciousness and the scope of its brilliance to be infinite.  

On the death of a person or deep sleep state, eyes do not function because mind is not there.  Therefore, sakshi cannot reflect after death and is in the unmanifested form.  Very very subtle vasanas of the mind leave the body when a person dies.

Verses from 2, 3, 4, and 5 are sub-divisions of the 1st verse, each verse giving an explanation, so as to enable us to arrive at the ultimate seer-consciousness.

Verse 2

नीलपीत स्थूल सूक्ष्म हृस्वदीर्घादि भेदत: l

नाना विधानि रूपाणि पश्येल्लोचनमेकधा ll

Meanings:

नील blue;  पीत yellow;  स्थूल the gross;  सूक्ष्म the subtle;  हृस्व short;  दीर्घ long;    आदि etc.;  भेदत: can see differences;  नाना विधानि various;  रूपाणि forms;  पश्येत् perceives;  लोचनम् eyes;  एकधा as one

The eyes can perceive/ see the difference in colors like blue, yellow, gross, subtle, short, long, etc.  The eyes which is one, sees various forms.  With reference to the objects, eye is the only perceiver.

Eye can see different colours besides blue and yellow.  Ultimately when all colours are mixed together, black is derived.  Therefore, different colours and shades, gross, subtle, short or long, irrespective of the colours, shape and size, eye as one whole, sees them.  The oneness of vision is emphasised in the above verse.  Similarly we can apply the same logic, for other organs of perception, say, nose.  We can smell a variety of scents simultaneously with only one nose.  We can see 10 elephants with one vision of eye.  To see 10 elephants, we don’t require 10 eyes.  Different sounds can be heard say, in a traffic signal, with a single and oneness of the hearing power of the ears.  The objects change but the perceiver is One and constant.

Verse 3

आन्ध्यमान्ध्यपटुत्वेषु नेत्रधर्मेषु चैकधा l

संकल्पयेन्मन: श्रोत्रत्वगादौ योज्यतामिदं ll

आन्ध्य blindness;  मान्ध्य dullness;  पटुत्वेषु sharpness;  यन मनः this mind;  च एकधा also as one;  संकल्पयेत  cognitive way;  इदं this;  श्रोत्र ears;  त्वक् skin;  आदौ etc.;  योज्यताम् as applicable.  नेत्रधर्म dharma of the eye

Due to superimposition of characteristics(dharma) of the eye, like blindness, dullness and sharpness, upon the eye, (an organ of perception and reporter to the mind), the mind, which is also One, is able to perceive the eye and lends existence in a cognitive way.

Eye as an organ of perception and subject to changes, is perceived by the mind.  As reporters to the mind, it is the mind that understands the characteristics like blindness, dullness and sharpness, etc.  This logic can be extended to other sense organs like nose, ears touch, etc.  The mind is the perceiver and sense organs are objects of perception.

In Guru stotram, it is said-“ Because of agyanam, I have become blind.  Just like an ointment when applied over the eyes, cures blindness, likewise a teacher unfolds the blindness by teaching shastram”.

Drg drishya viveka is prakarna granthaor treatise,  extracted from Upanishads and therefore, will not contradict the Upanishads.  The text is writtenby Swami Vidyaranya.  Since the unfolding method is similar to Panchadashi, another text written by swami Vidyaranya,  drg drishya viveka’s authourship is attributed to him.

We see different colours/shapes/forms with our sense organ, Eye, which does not multiply with the multiplicity of forms, shapes, or colours.  Similarly, seeing a blue or yellow colour, our eyes do not become blue or yellow or with every shape and size eye does not change.  Blindness, dullness, or sharpness are the very dharma/job/nature of the eye.  The mind which is one perceives and lends existence to the eye.  Mind is One and reflects many thoughts and sense organs.  When the sense organs deteriorate over a period of time, the mind cognizes that too. 

Verse 4

काम: संकल्पसन्देहौ श्रद्धाSश्रद्धे धृतीतरे  l

ह्रीर्धीर्भीरित्येवमादीन  भासयत्येकधा चिति: ll

Meanings:

काम: desire;  संकल्प  determination or resolve;  सन्देह doubt;  श्रद्धा faith;  अश्रधा having no faith or absence of faith;  ध्रुतिः fortitude (courage in adversity)/firm;  इतरे not firm/unsteady/lack of fortitude;  ह्री: shyness;  धीः knowledge  भीःfear;  इति एवमादीन and of such nature;  एकधा being one and same-without changing itself;  चिति: sakshi/pure consciousness/ shudha chaitanya;   भासयती illumines.

Consciousness illumines desire, determination, doubts, faith, having no faith, fortitude, lack of fortitude, shyness, knowledge, fear, and of such nature.  Being One and same without changing itself, Consciousness illumines.

Desire, firmness, doubt, shyness, fear, are the work of the mind.  Even for consciousness, there has to be a reflecting medium and our mind plays that role.  In a deep sleep state or death, mind is not transactable.  Therefore, consciousness is not manifested.  Aperson stands before a mirror and sees his reflection.  When the mirror is taken away, it does not mean he does not exist.  The reflecting medium is absent.  In the morning after a deep sleep, we are able to reflect that we slept well or dreamt or had a disturbed sleep.  Consciousness is always available as a waker, dreamer and as a sleeper.

The Observer is not observed.  If Brahman is a creator, then when the creator is born is questionable.  All creators are time bound.  In Advaita, the terminology creation is never used.  Everything is a manifestation of consciousness/brahman.  Consciousness is not bound by time.  

A person can do multiple tasks with One mind.  He can scratch his hand or nose and read a book or even cook food.  He can also hear many sounds or see many colours/shapes simultaneously. 

Verse 5 

नोदेति नास्तमेत्येषा न वृद्धिं याति न क्षयं  l

स्वयं विभात्यथान्यानि भासयेत्साधानं विना ll

न उदेति not rise;  न अस्तम् does not set;  एषा this;  न वृद्धिम् does not increase;  याति undergo;  न क्षयं does not deteriorate;  स्वयं by itself;  विभाति shines;  अथ also;  अन्यानि other objects;  विना साधनम् without aids/ efforts;  भासयते illumines/reveals itself

This does not rise, does not set, does not increase, does not undergo deterioration.  It shines by itself and also illumines other objects, without efforts/aids.

Awareness or consciousness is reflected through the medium of mind.  Or instance, when we see our reflection in the mirror, mirror is the mind and we ourselves are consciousness.  If mirror is taken away, even then we are there, but, the reflecting medium is absent.  

In the guru stotram no. 2, atma is described thus: एकम् (One), नित्यम् (permanent), विमलं (pure), अचलम् (remains same), सर्वाधी साक्षी भूतम् (witness in all living beings), भाव अतीतम् (beyond emotions), त्रिगुण रहितम् (devoid of three gunas-satvic, rejasic and tamasic),  सद्गुरुम् तम् नमामि( I salute you).

In bhagwat gita, chapter 2 verse 27: 

जातस्य हि ध्रुवो मृत्युर्ध्रुवं जन्म मृतस्य च । 

तस्मादपरिहार्येSर्थे न त्वं शोचितुमर्हसि lljatasya hi dhruvo mrtyur dhruvam janma mrtasya cha 

tasmadapariharye arthe na tvam shochitum arhasi

For that which is born, death is certain, and that which is dead birth is certain.  Therefore, you ought not to grieve over that which cannot be altered.

Consciousness has no birth or death.  It is ajaha (अजाः).  It is svayambhu ( स्वयम्भू)-self created and does not change in any situation.

जाग्रत्स्वप्नसुषुप्तिषु स्फुटतरा या सम्विदुज्ज्रिंभते

याब्रह्मादिपिपीलिकान्ततनुषु प्रोता जगत् सक्षिणी

Atma/consciousness is available in all the three states- Jagrat, swapna, and sushupti avastha.  In all the three states, it clearly shines. Right from brahma upto an ant, every living thing has Consciousness, available as sakshi of Jagat.  When we say Namaste as a greeting, instead of shaking hands, as practiced in the west adopted the world over, it means we bow down to the supreme being residing in that person.  

The sun illuminates everything.  There is no question of sun rising or setting.  It does not require any other power to illuminate it.  The nature of Sun is self-shining and illuminates everything on its path.  For instance, place a bucket of water in a room, with a small hole in the wall for the sun’s rays to pass.  The rays passing through the hole fall on the water and the room gets illuminated with the reflections falling on the walls around. 

All forms in the universe are modified forms of Brahman.  Mind is so fast, so thoughts too travel very fast.  All thoughts are impermanent and therefore, Mithya.  Sthitha pragya( स्थित प्रज्ञा)  is the nature of Consciousness.  It is neither happy nor sad in any situation.  This same quality can be applied to one’s own personality thereby attempting to achieve a balanced approach in life.  If “ness” from Consciousness and Awareness is removed, only Conscious and Aware remains.  

Katho Upanishad says:  “This Atman is difficult to be known.  It is very subtle.  It cannot be obtained by arguing.”    

2 thoughts on “Drg Drsya Viveka Verse 1 to 5

  1. Went through the notes above on drg dishy vivek. Felt more clear. I think I will have to repeatedly read this for it to sink in and answer questions when they put to me.

  2. Pingback: Notes on Drg Drsya Viveka (#1 – Verse 1) – Quenching the Firebrand

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