We now see another text called Drg Drsya viveka.
A prakarana is an independent book or treatise written by an author. There is a definition for this. Among the prakarana the Panchadashi is the most popular. E.g. Tattvabodha, atmabodha, viveka choodamani are all called prakarana. If you read a translation you won’t know the meaning. You must have a vision.
When you say Upanishad it means Vedanta. The subject matter which is not available for other means of knowledge. Subject matter is available for knowledge, not available for the means of knowledge we have. Available for knowledge either direct or indirect. Direct knowledge is available for perception; indirect knowledge is inference. Suppose you see a person, the person has a back, or a bone structure, some kind of mind all these are inference. But then direct perception is what you see or what you hear. The tools like inference, presumption, reasoning is made use of to eliminate doubts etc. But what is the subject matter of the veda only the veda can talk about. It is not available for inference or perception. Veda has to talk to about punya, papa, Punar janma, adrsta etc are available to be known only through veda. When you say soyam devadatta, it means that “this is Devadatta”. That time and place is given. Twam Dashomosi or you are the tenth man. Here Atma is talked about. Atma is Brahman. Brahman is isvara. Bypassing god means you are bypassing everything. All here is god. Brahman is the cause of the world. Resolving the problem is knowing. One enlightenment I have god is’ not to use the word enlightenment’ but knowing is the correct word.
Iam Ishwara, the cause of the world. Brahman and Ishwara are both synonyms. A person who does not believe in god, has a problem of understanding. Let’s say a person keeps chanting ‘gaja muka, gaja muka’ daily. One day, he sees an elephant in his house and he runs away seeing the elephant. The elephant says to him ‘don’t run away, I am gaja muka’, yet he doesn’t trust. So a person who has no idea who is Ishwara, will assume a form and expects that lord to come only in that form.
Smrti includes Purana also. Except the veda, anything that upholds the subject matter of the veda, not contradicting the veda, not complimentary to the veda, and which is independent as a pramana is Smrti. Gita is Smrti. Sruti is the pramana while Smrti is supportive.
The text is written by one of the Sankara Acharya and not exactly sure who is the author of this text. This text tells you ‘viveka’ is the masculine gender word (vivichya gyanam) is called viveka. Discriminative knowledge is called viveka. Being clear about 2 different things. Here even though what is arrived is second less reality, one needs to have discriminative knowledge of the 2 things. Drg and drsyam Drg means seer, Drsya means the object or the seen, drsyam means the seen. Discriminative knowledge of the seer and the seen or the knower and the known, the observer and the observed is this viveka. Generally, you arrive at the reality, the individual alone is analysed here as one of the method to arrive. We are not analysing the jagat and just the individual. It is only Vyashti vichara is there. This Vyashti vichara itself, where in we need to know the 3 things. We do not even know who is actually the seer, the seen or the object. When there is no viveka, there is confusion, the drsyam is mistaken for the Drg. The known is mistaken for the knower because the knower is not known. Therefore, all the attributes of the known becomes superimposed on the knower. Drg is not known, therefore drsyam is mistaken as the Drg and is called adhyaropa or superimposition. Drsyasya gunan iti aropayathi (super imposition of the drsyam on the Drg). Agynam-adhyasa-adhyaropa.
There is something notion that is formed. The notion that I am small, insignificant, unhappy, mortal etc about the self happens in the form of a thought. This notion is definitely erroneous which happens in the mind. The notion is born of the super imposition of the drsyam upon the Drg. The wrong notion entertains about the self is called ahankara. Because of this notion alone, emotional need happens or emotional dependency happens. If the notion about the self is not wrong, then there is no desire. Shastram does not say that don’t have desire. Desire itself has its origin due to the emotional dependence. If this was not there, there will be no desire. Fulfilment of 1 desire will lead to many more desires and also will lead to anger. Always anger is expression of unfulfilled desire, ones need not satisfied. When there is anger, hurt, guilt and emotional pain is there. If there is no anger in a person, there will be no anger, guilt or hurt in a person. Different degrees of emotional pain is possible because of this desire and anger. All other problems in life also stems from this emotional dependency. A problem is that because of which there is anger, pain, guilt or hurt. Shastram looks at it differently and does not force one to stop having desire, anger, guilt etc. But it only tells us that these are natural and cannot be avoided, but can be managed. Fear, anxiety and greed is also another face of desire. No doctor will tell a patient that you can’t have headache, but asks why do you get headaches or tries to analyse the individual habits to understand and then suggest a medicine. These are holding on to you in the form of thoughts. But what we try to do. We are trying to throw away from these thoughts, but we are unable to. You cannot get rid of emotional dependence but shastram says that they will leave you also slowly and you will become free. To become free, one’s notion has to be changed. For this you need discriminative knowledge about the 3 types. (seer, seen and ultimate seer).
This will help you understand the lord (Ishwara) and the oneness of the Ishwara with the self.
- Rupam drsyam Lochanam drk
There are 2 words, Drg and Drsya. The seer and the seen. So Drg drysau dauhi padarthau. There is subject and also an object. There are objects and there is a subject. The objects are called Drsya with reference to 1 object e.g. object of sight. Then there is a subject. There are many seers, because objects are many. Whatever you see is Drsya. Objects of sense organs are many e.g. smell, hearing, touch, eyesight are many. But the sense organ ‘I’ is the same. For seeing blue we don’t need to have blue eyes. If you are blue eyed, it doesn’t mean that you see it as blue. Eye remain the same, but Drsya are nana Vidani rupani or many forms and various.
First let’s take the eye. Eye is one and the same. Everything seen by eye is vishaya.
Rupam is a form. Form is the seen, known and is an object of knowledge. An object of knowledge never becomes the knower. The seen object never becomes the seer. Colour is also rupam. The object of eye sight is drsyam.
Lochanam drk – who’s the seer with reference to the seen? Lochanam is the eye and is the seer of the form. Form is the perceived, eye is the perceiver. Sound is the perceived, the ear is the perceiver, the smell is the perceived and the nose is perceiver. Touch is the object and the skin is the perceiver. All different forms or objects in 5 different are objects of knowledge. They will always be the object of knowledge and will never become the subject of knowledge.
- Tad drsyam Drg tu manasam
That Drg or the seer becomes the seen in the presence of mind. i.e. the mind illumines the sensory objects. The seer becomes an object with reference to the mind.
- Drishya dhi vrittaya Sakshi
Dhihi is another word for buddhi or the entire mind. Manasam and Dhihi are both same. Vritti means a thought. Vrittaya are called thoughts which are part of the mind. Mind also becomes the known or seen and who is the seer here?
- Drg eva na tu drysyate
The sakshi is the one who is witness of the mind and that witness is not an object nor seen. That which knows the mind, the seer of the mind is always only Drg or Drg eva. The knower of the mind never becomes the known. That witness never becomes drsyam (na tu drysyate)
Who is this sakshi? What is that witnesses the mind? The witness of the mind is always there inseparably with the mind. The witness gives a 24-hour report as to what goes through the mind. Drg eva (always sees the mind). When we are in deep sleep state or sushupti avastha, there are no vrittis or thoughts. I, or Iam or the “isness “are all thoughts and is resolved in deep sleep state. Even in that avastha also, you are able to say next day when you wake up, there was no thought. 3 states of experience are possible only because of the witness. In all the experience or actions the sakshi is always present e.g. knower, experiencer, seer waker, dreamer, sleeper etc, the ‘er’ is the one that is consistent and is present as the sakshi. You are the witness or sakshi. Because mind is not outside of the knower. Consciousness is the Drg and mind is drsyam. Sense powers are drsyam or objects of knowledge. How many Drg are there? 1
There is a waker atma (fully dressed up in coat, tie, full pant, shirt etc). Then in the dream, there is a dream atma (in this the coat gone, tie gone but now in a T shirt (called T shirt Atma), Then there is a sleeper atma (all clothes gone). But there is 1 atma that sees all these and that’s sakshi. Sakshi is that is self-revealing.
5 sense organs, 5 sense powers, manas, buddhi, ahankara (there are 24 objects) which are drsyam and there is only 1 Drg.
Vedanta Prakarana Granthas – Is nothing but Vedanta only but it is authored by other Acharya. In no way it distorts what is said in the Vedanta. It is a condensed version of the prasthana trayam. There are so many granthas are there.
What are the topics discussed in the Vedanta shastram?
- Jiva jagad-isha aikyam – To establish these 6 topics are presented
- Jiva – Individual – Analysis of the individual (Vyashti vichara – sukshma, karana, Sthoola sariram)
- Ishwara – Analysis of the total (samashti)- Macrocosm.
- Jagat – Analysis of the cosmos or universe
- Bandhaha – What is samsara
- Moksha – Freedom from bondage
- Sadhanani – Means of accomplishing the freedom from bondage. Knowledge of the reality is the sadhanam for moksha. Contemplation is the only sadhanam for having a clear disposition of the mind. Nanya pantha ayanaye vidyate (there is no other path other than knowledge) Contemplation implies 3 things (pure and steady mind, or contemplative disposition of the mind, knowledge of what to contemplate on) For what is to be contemplated on, you need shastram. Shastra study is means for knowing what is to contemplate on. Shastram is sadhanam for what is to contemplate on. For contemplation you don’t need shastram. For sravanam and mananam teacher and shastram is required. For contemplation one doesn’t need teacher nor shastram.
Viveka is vivichya gyanam or discriminative knowledge of Drg and drsyam. In Tattvabodha there is jiva vichara. There the individual is the one who is endowed with 3 sariram. The author in this book presents the individual is a constituent of 3 seers. Atma is the sakshi is the absolute seer. Mind is another seer. Sense organs are the seers. If you have 3 seers, then there should be 3 fold seen objects. The external world in 5 forms in 5 different objects including the body, mind sense organs.
Sense organs is the first seer or illuminator. Eye is the seer, light is the seen, form, colour, shape is the seen. If the eye cannot see, then the seen objects as good as non-existent. They do not become seen. Therefore, seer is the one who illumines the objects. Illuminator is the thing that brings to light the objects. A light is called Devah. Light is illuminator and there are 5 devah. All the 5 devah constitute 1 illuminator. So illuminator 1 is the sense organs. These pancha devah are by themselves inert in nature. How can inert sense organs illumine the objects? They are inert because they are material products.
Mind is the seer or illuminator of the sense organs. Mind is seer the second seer. Mind also seen by Sakshi or relative seer. Sense organs are only relative seer. Mind also is the relative seer from the point of the sakshi. Sense organs are seen by the mind.
Sakshi is the absolute seer and is the only seer and never becomes the seen. Of the 3 seers, one is absolute seer and the other 2 are relative seers. Sakshi is always the illuminator and is independent of the mind. There are 3 Drg here, the sense organs, the mind and the sakshi. But sakshi is ever illumining and self-shining, self-revealing. In tattva bodha, we saw the individual made up of pancha kosha and 3 sariram. Here the individual is made up of 3 seers of which 1 is the ultimate seer.
Mind is a material product i.e. made of matter. Mind is made up of sattvic aspect of 5 elements (Tattvabodha). That’s why subtlest of the manifestation. When we say matter, the subtle, unperceivable, and inert is the mind. Chair is made of wood; mind is nothing but modified form of 5 elements. So how can the inert mind be the seer? This mind becomes conscious or live or sentient, bright in association with pure consciousness. This conscious mind becomes bright because of manifestation of consciousness. Therefore, mind gets the capacity to see. The mind has the borrowed consciousness. This conscious mind becomes associated with the whole body. The very proof that we are alive is proof that mind is manifested. Because consciousness pervades everything and even the subtlest of the matter. That’s why the body also borrows the sentiency from the mind. Golakam or five different officers become sentient due to the mind becomes sentient. The conscious mind sees the sense organs and thereby it pervades the entire objects. The sakshi does not need any other seer as it is the ultimate seer.
A live individual is a composite of 3 seers. When somebody dies, one seer goes away. Relative seer goes away but absolute seer does not go away as reality cannot go away. Mind the seer moves, or departure of the soul. The person vacates the house and goes away this body becomes insentient. The absolute seer is there, but the body cannot access it directly and therefore it cannot borrow consciousness. Once the mind seer goes, the other seer also goes. That’s why the dead body doesn’t see anyone or not able to know who else is crying for me. Both relative seers leave.
The author takes 4 more verses to explain who is the individual. So the next verse describes first quarter of the first mantra with more elaboration and so on till the 5th Mantra.