Bhagvat gita verses -61-73
ईश्वरः सर्वभूतानां हृद्देशेSर्जुन तिष्ठति l
भ्रामयन सर्वभूतानि यन्त्ररुढानि मायया ll
सर्वभूतानि all living beings; यन्त्ररुढानि boarded on a machine(wheel); हृद्देशे area close to heart (it is referred to Atma); तिष्ठति resides; भ्रामयन that which is causing to revolve; ईश्वरः Lord; मायया by maya.
In purusha suktham, a verse tells us the measurement of the seat of lord as, from nabhi to the heart, it is 10 times our thumb. (Athya thishta dasha angulam )
Who is Arjuna?
Uptil now, we have known him as Dhananjaya, parantapah, mahabaho,savyasachi, partha, kaunteya etc. But at the end now , Shankara says, Arjuna means he is a person with clear thoughts, compassionate, devoid of animosity or hatred for anybody. A person who is cloudless in his vision.But he got into this problem because of his affection for Draupadi, his wife, whom he had won for himself as a prize for his skill in archery. He entered samsara therwby getting caught with raga dveasas which is like a wheel of maya revolving round and round with clouded thinking.
Atma is in all living beings and therefore as ishwara it is not a separate entity. All the organs are empowered by Atma-Consciousness. Ishwara is source of everything. A person who accepts – whatever is available to him, lives without complaining. He surrenders to Ishwara.
Maya makes a person gets stuck in samsara. All the living beimgs get stuck in the power of maya . The first line is a vision that gives we don’t see the person operating the wheel but simply get tossed around in circles.
तमेव शरणम् गच्छ् सर्वभावेन् भारत् l
तत् प्रसादात्पराम् शान्तिम् स्थानम् प्राप्स्यसि शाश्वतम् ll
तम् एव to him; शरणम् surrender; गच्छ् come unto; सर्वभावेन् wholeheartedly; भारत् descendent of Bharata; तत् प्रसादात्पराम् thereby you will get lord’s grace; शान्तिम् tranquillity; स्थानम् place; प्राप्स्यसि will get; शाश्वतम् eternal/permanent
Surrender all your actions to me ( that source/Cause), wholeheartedly, by grace of lord, you will get shanti and an eternal abode.
By surrendering completely to the consciousness, (Krishna being the Consciousness), we get peace through better management of our raga dweshas, and thought processes. Eternal abode implies our comprehending that we are Shuddha Chaitanya.
इति ते ग्यानमाख्यातम् गुह्याद् गुह्यतरम् मया l
विम्रुशैतशेषेण् यथेच्छसि तथा कुरु ll
विम्रुशै consider what I have told you; इति ते thus; गुह्याद् secret; गुह्यतरम् more secret than anything; अशेषेण् thoroughly; मया by me; यथा इच्छसि as you wish; तथा कुरु so you may do; ग्यानम् knowledge; आख्यातम् was told
Thus the knowledge that is more secret than any secret was told by me to you. Consider what I have told you and you may do as you wish.
The enquiry into nitya anitya vastu viveka must be done to follow one’s own vision, wishes and desire.
सर्वगुह्यतम् भूयः श्रुणु मे परमम् वचः l
इश्टोSसि मे द्रुढमिति ततो वक्श्यामि ते हितम् ll
सर्वगुह्यतम् most secret of all; भूयः again; श्रुणु मे listen to me; परमम् वचः ultimate truth; इश्टःअसि beloved; द्रुढम् definitely/firm conviction; ते हितम् your benefit; ततः therefore; वक्श्यामि I will tell you.
Listen to my ultimate truth again which is the most secret of all. You are definitely beloved to me, therefore, I will tell you for your benefit.
Krishna plays the role of a Guru to Arjuna. Krishna asks Arjuna to do mananam of what had been taught. Without a guru one cannot learn anything and cross over to reach Ishwara. Guru shows the right path. Even if one reads many books on his own, the person will be reading only from his limited understanding capacity.
In Guru Gita 1st chapter, Guru is revered as almost the same as Brahman.
मन्मना भव मद्भक्तो मद्याजि माम् नमस्कुरु l
मामेवैष्यसि सत्यम् ते प्रतिजाने प्रियोSसि मे ll
मन्मना whose mind is offered to me; मद्भक्तः whose devotion is to me; मद्याजि whose wordhip is to me; भव become; माम् to me; नमस्कुरु do salutations to me; माम् एव to me alone; एष्यसि you will reach; सत्यम् truly; ते to you; प्रतिजाने I promise; प्रिय असि मे you are dear to me
Become the one whose mind is offered to me, one whose devotion is to Me, one whose worship is to me, do salutations to Me, you will reach Me alone. I truly promise you, you are dear to me.
Surrender your mind,and devotion to me, worship me and salute only me. Me means consciousness. In another chapter Krishna says, I am not the form you see, but I am Shudha Chaitanya. Surrendering means surrendering to the consciousness. Till such time, you pray with dwaita bhava to all the gods like Ram hanuman, etc., which are same but different forms and names. .Now everythin is One. You will reach me alone . It is the truth. I promise you if you follow the four things, Shastram will relieve you from karmas and you will get moksha. You become One with me. I am worshipping at the parabrahma level as I am the lord-the shudha chaitanya and to me alone you must surrender. Beyond the mind there is Consciousness. Mind. controls everything and thoughts are controlled by mind. Krishna says, It is a promise to you, if you follow my teaching, you will be free from samsara and will come to me as you are dear to me.
Refer to chapter 18 verse 46 and 56 which convey the same meaning.
सर्वधर्मान् परित्यज्य मामेकम् शरणम् व्रज l
अहम् त्वाम् सर्व पापेभ्यो मोक्शयिष्यमि मा शुचः ll
सर्वधर्मान् all karmas; परित्यज्य giving up; माम् एकम् Me alone, शरणम् व्रज take refuge; सर्व पापेभ्य: from all karma; त्वा you; अहम् मोक्शयिष्यमि I will release; मा शुचः do not grieve
Give up all karmas, take refuge in Me alone, I will releaseyou from all karma, do not grieve.
Surrender all actions to me. Give up the attitude of I AM DOER. Only to me you come and take refuge in me . Krishna is talking as the Shastram Guru giving the vision of Vedas. ALL the paapam will be absolved by me, so do not grieve.
Refer to chapter 2 verse 15
इदम् ते नातपस्काय नाभक्ताय कदाचन l
न चाशुश्रुषवे वाच्याम् न च माम् योभ्यसूयति ll
इदम् ते this teaching given to you; नातपस्काय person with no discipline; नाभक्ताय no devotion (shastram); कदाचन never never; वाच्याम् not to the person finding faults (with the teaching); अभ्यास study of shastram; सूयः faults/defects; माम् ME.
This teaching given to you is never, never to be taught to a person who is not having a discipline, no devotion, not willing to listen, not to the person who finds faults/defects with ME.
Bhagwat gita must be taught only to those who are ready to take and to everyone. It is a secret of secrets.
य इमम् परमम् गुह्यम् मद्भक्तेष्वभि धास्यति l
भक्तिम् मयि पराम् क्रुत्वा मामे वैष्यत्यसन्शयः ll
य: the one who; इमम् परमम् this ultimate knowledge; मद्भक्तेषु to my devotees; अभिधास्यति teaching; मयि पराम् भक्तिम् क्रुत्वा offering to me highest devotion; माम् एव एष्यति reach me only; सत्यम् truth; असन्शयःwithout doubt; गुह्यम् secret
The person who is teaching this ultimate secret knowledge, to my devotees, is offering his highest devotion and will reach Me only without doubt. This is truth.
The person teaching the Bhagavad Gita conveys a clear vision of shastram. The person listening to Gita is also blessed if he has the right attitude of learning, as we saw in the previous verse.
न च तस्मान्मनुष्येषु कश्चिन् मे प्रियक्रुत्तमः l
भविता न च मे तस्मादान्यः प्रियतरो भुविः ll
मनुष्येषु among all human beings; च and; तस्मात् other than him; प्रियतरः न कश्चित् there will not be a person dearer , मे प्रियक्रुत्तमः among men who is dear to me; भवितः will not be; भुविःon this earth; अन्य प्रियतरः another dear to me; तस्मात् other than him
Out of all the people who are there, only one person knows me in the true form. There will not be another person dear to me other than him (who knows me in the true form). in this earth.
मनुष्याणाम् शास्त्रेषु only one person will know me in the true form, who studies shastram.
अध्य्ष्यते च य इमम् धर्म्यम् सम्वादमावयोःl
ग्यानयग्येन् ते नाहमिष्टःस्यामिति मे मतिः ll
Ca further; य: अध्य्ष्यते person who studies or recites; इमम् धर्म्यम् सम्वादम l discussion ( guru-shishya samvada) based on dharma; आवयोः of ours; ग्यानयग्येन् ritual of knowledge; अहम् इष्टः स्याम् I will be worshipped; इति मे मति this is my concviction
Further, the person who studies or recites, this discussion of ours based on dharma, through the ritual of knowledge, I will be worshipped. This is my conviction.
A teacher-student discussion or dialogue is the Ultimate dialogue. Dharma implies the right attitude approach to the subject and give the benefit of doubt to the teacher in case of mistakes, surrender attitude, have shradha, humility etc. A person must study Gita everyday because all the Upanishads are summarised in the simplest form.
श्रधावाननसूयश्च श्रुनुयादपि यो नरः l
सोSपि मुक्तः शुभालोकान् प्राप्नुयात् पुण्य कर्मणम् ll
यः नरः the person; श्रद्धावान् person with faith; अनुसूयश्च does not find fault; श्रुणुयात् अपि listens to this; मुक्तः liberated; पुण्य कर्मणम् of those who do good deeds प्राप्नुयात् gains; शुभालोकान् auspicious worlds
The person having shradha in teaching, one who does not find fault in teaching and listens with the right attitude, that man is free and will get auspicious worlds (or shivam or consciousness ), of those who do punya karma.punya karma.
By listening to bhagavad gita with faith in its teaching, one gets the benefit of that person who has done punya karma, thereby getting liberated.
कच्चिदेतच्छुतम् पार्थ त्वयेकाग्रेण चेतसा l
कच्चिदग्यानसम्मोहः प्रणष्टस्ते धनन्जय ll
पार्थ son of prutha; त्वया by you; एकाग्रेण चेतसा single mindedness; कच्चित् एतत् श्रुतम् I hope this has been listened to; ते your; अग्यान सम्मोहः delusion caused by ignorance; कच्चित् प्रणष्ट is destroyed;
O’ partha, Have you listened with concentration and single pointed or focussed mind ? Is your delusion caused by ignorance destroyed ?
नष्टो मोहः स्म्रितिर्लब्धा त्वत्प्रसादान्मयाच्युत् l
स्थितोस्मि गत सन्देहः करिष्ये वचनम् तव ll
अर्जुन् उवाच Arjuna said; मया to me; तत् प्रसादात् By your grace; अच्युत् greatest of Lords; i.e. Krishna; नष्टो मोहः delusions/attachments destroyed; गत सन्देहःall doubts gone; स्म्रितिर्लब्धा gained recognition of my SELF; स्थित अस्मि steady I remain; वचनम् तव what you say; करिष्ये I will do
My attachments got destroyed and all my doubts gone, I have understood and know who I am or my SELF. Having been given that vision, and my delusions gone, I will do as you say.