Drg Drishya Viveka-Nature of the Individual

Drg Drishya viveka – Chapter 2 verse 1 and 2

Nature of the Individual

Who is a samsari?

Samsara is a cycle of bondage for an individual which makes him go around and around in circles.  An individual is a combination of Atma and Anatma.  Atma does not have attributes.  So, it cannot be a samsari.  What about the mind?  Can it be a samsari?  The answer is yes because we usually identify ourselves with the body-mind-sense complex.  This is a Jadam.  A table/chair/animal cannot be a samsari, because it doesn’t have anything to reflect.  Mind, a subtle matter, is inert.  Sthoola sharira is gross body and mind is also gross matter and inert.  Mind being inert by itself, reflects body-sense-mind complex, therefore none of that can become a samsari.  Who can be a samsari?

To arrive at Atma, absolute reality, through pavana (negation), according to Upanishads, we should look at the object having a dependent reality or dependent for its existence on something existence or having an independent reality or independent existence.  Then we must negate all that is known.  From known to the unknown objects, we must move backwards negating all objects, – Neti Neti principle, ultimately nothing can be negated any further.

For instance, eyes see a rose.  Mind sees the eye which is seen by consciousness.  The object rose is known and is part of universe.

Another example:  we see a cotton shirt.  A vedanti will go a few steps further to analyse.  Shirt is made of threads interwoven together, to give a cloth form, which is from yarn.  Yarn is made of cotton which comes from cotton pods growing on a plant.  All this is known to us and part of Universe.  These are subject to time and space which is Maya/Mithya within brahman.  We as a shuddha Chaitanya, are ever present as a knower.

An individual is a combination of nitya and anitya i.e. Atma and Anatma.  For Jivaatma, the individual, samsara is applicable.  Both combine and operate together creating samsara. The individual has the brightness of consciousness and dullness or anitya of body-sense-mind complex.  For a person who is in coma, doesn’t matter.  Due to the work of intelligence the problem of samsara arises and this study shows how we are trapped in this wheel of samsara.

Verse 1

चिच्छाया SSवेशतो बुद्धौ भानं धीस्तु द्विधा स्थिता l

एकाहङ्क्रुतिरन्या स्यादन्त: करण रूपिणी ll

 

Meanings:

बुद्धौ in the buddhi;  चित् छाया shadow of consciousness;  आवेशतो on entering;  भानं appears to possess reflection(brightness)/luminosity;  द्विधा two-fold;  स्थिता is;   एक one;  अहंक्रुति ego (I am doing this) – taken from tattva bodha);  धीः intelligence;  तु and;  ;  स्यात् is;  अन्या other;  अंत: करण रूपिणी inner instrument (for actions);

The shadow of consciousness on entering the buddhi, appears to reflect brightness, two-fold.  One on ego or subject and other is nature of inner instrument.

The mind is inert and therefore cannot reflect on its own.  Buddhi appears to have luminosity as reflection of Consciousness.  Mind is borrowing true consciousness.  Due to the infusion of Consciousness, into the mind, the inert mind gets luminosity.  Consciousness needs to have an Upadhi.  On its own it cannot reflect.  If the mind is not there, consciousness will not be manifested.  Mind borrows the luminosity from consciousness and through that borrowed luminosity and through that brilliance it the enters the entire body-mind- sense complex.  Mind doesn’t become consciousness.  Now the luminosity is transferred to the body-mind-sense complex and that is the reason, we have the power to see, touch, speak, etc.  In the borrowed brilliance from consciousness everything is lit up and becomes known.  It is Pratibimba (प्रतिबिम्ब) philosophy.

For instance,

In a dark room, there is a bucket filled with water.  By itself, water cannot reflect.  Through a small hole in the wall, the rays of the sun pass and fall on the water and go up to the roof.  Water is borrowing luminosity from the sun.  Now the whole room gets slightly illuminated.

In a school, some of the kids hold a small mirror in such a way that the rays of the sun fall on the mirror and hit somebody on the face.  Mirror only reflects.  If there is no sun, the mirror doesn’t do anything.  Sun is only ONE.   Reflection of the sun’s rays on the mirror creates an illusion that, now object is transmitted to another place.  Reflecting medium mirror, has the capacity to reflect.  If the medium does not have the reflection capacity, it will not be illumined.

Similarly, our body also can do karma because everything comes from the mind.  Since mind has the capacity to reflect, mind borrows reflection from pure consciousness and it tries to shine.  In that brilliance, everything gets lit up.  The medium must have the capacity to reflect.  Reflection is a model or prakriya.  Prakriya is a method/model to arrive at an inference.  There are different methods.  The reflection model is also called Pratibimba nyaya.  Bimba means object and prati means see your own object.  Nyaya means philosophy.

There are two orders of reality – Paramartika reality or satyam and vyavahirika reality or transactional reality (satyam).  Paramartika reality belongs to the ultimate satyam and will not get affected by anything.  It is an eternal satyam.  Through reflection alone, mind gets illumine.  Mind along with the body-mind-sense complex, belongs to the vyavahirika satyam.  It assumes attributes such as ‘I am this’ and ‘I am that’ purely goes by reflection model.

Every day we see ourselves in the mirror.  We don’t have the same face every day. One day, face looks happy, another day sad, etc.  When the mirror is taken away, still we are there.  Only the reflecting medium is absent.  The mirror is only a reflecting medium.  When the reflecting medium is clear, our face is clear in the reflection.  However, if the medium is cracked or tainted, say, over a period, the reflection is bad.  If the mind is bad, then everything looks bad.  ‘I AM short/black/ugly, etc’ is superimposed on the Atma.  We cannot look at ourselves and must depend on the reflecting medium.  If mind is bad, we superimpose that on the Atma and we think, of ourselves as that attribute which is conveyed by the mind, because the reflecting medium, mind, is not clear.  We are belonging to the Paramartika Satyam or reality and need not have the feeling of negativity.

For instance, if the Sun is reflected on clean water, it is clearly visible with its rays spreading across, in its entirety.  However, when it is reflected on a dirty pond or swamp, the brightness is hardly visible and cannot reflect.  Sun is the one and same but the reflecting mediums are different.  If the medium is not good, our understanding is not good and, then naturally our reflection is not good.  This is the samsara we are talking about.  Samsara is a person because the mind is inseparable from the body.

When we are born, Ahamkriti (अहंक्रुति) is also born with us.  This ego will always be there.  If it can grow to such an extent, it will overshadow everything and the reflection will become truth.  Anything that is known to us in name or form is Mithya, belonging to the sphere of pancha bhutas, pancha pranas and pancha indriyas, manah and buddhi.

Even the lord in vaikuntha – super consciousness must take an avatara as a mortal human being, to do the job of God, through the body-mind-sense complex.  Sitting in vaikuntha, Krishna could not have preached Bhagwat Gita.  The avatars must transcend to reality of vyavahirika along with Ahamkriti.  They also die as mortals.  Any avatara taken must die.  Physical body must be left behind.

Quoting a story: Trishanku, was a devotee of guru sage vishwamitra.  He did extreme penance and wanted to go to heaven with his body to Indra-loka.  Lord Indra refused admission saying he cannot come with the physical body, but a different body.  When a person dies, karmas should be performed and pindams offered.  For thirteen days 13 pindams are offered and the sukshma travels.  Sage vishwamitra tells him that through his tapas he will send him to Indra-loka directly with his body.  Every time Trishanku goes with his body, Indra sends him back and he is thereby stuck in the middle.  He is neither in Indra-loka nor in bhu-loka.  So, he is hanging in the middle.

We should leave everything and go.  Once we keep attaching ourselves to Ahamkriti we will be in samsara forever.

Union is possible only if the orders of reality is same.  Consciousness belongs to the paramartika reality and Body-mind-sense complex belongs to the vyavahirika reality.  This reflected consciousness is borrowed and the union is a samsari. For instance, the moon borrows light from the sun.  if the moon thinks it is self-illumining, then there is an identity problem.  Similarly, if a wave thinks it is not belonging to the water, the wave is ignorant that it exists only because of water. Who is a suffering from samsara? A samsara is a person with Ahamkriti or having association with reflected consciousness and body-mind-sense complex.  Reflected body-mind-sense complex gives a false notion that I am consciousness.  Electricity cannot be seen and it requires a tungsten filament to illumine.  Bulb is borrowing luminosity from electricity.  However, electricity requires an upadhi to illuminate.

Mind has 2 things- Ahamkriti (which thinks) and karana buddhi (tell to do).  We always do actions given by a thought.  Every action is known to us and thoughts are behind those actions.  Sometimes we have a guilt feeling after doing some action.  This two-fold nature of mind Ahamkriti and antha karana rupini it tells us the thought and tells the action.  Atma cannot be a samsara.  Atma cannot do any task.  Mind is inert by nature.  It borrows luminosity from consciousness.  This association of reflected consciousness and body-sense-mind complex is samsara.  Anatma cannot be a samsari.

Verse 2

छायाSहङ्कारयोरैक्यम्  तत्पाय: पिण्डवन्मतम्  l

तदहङ्कारतादात्म्या द्येहश्चेतनतामगात  ll

Meanings:

छाया reflected consciousness;  अहंकार : ego;  ऐक्यं becomes one or union of the same reality order or identity;  तप्त made red hot (by fire) अयःiron पिण्डवत् मतम् opinion like red hot iron ball considers(itself to be self-radiant);  तत् अहंकार due to association of ahankara;  देहा physical body;  चेतनl brilliance;  आगात् one who attains.  तादात्म्यात् owing to identification

Reflected consciousness with ego becomes one, just like a red-hot iron ball. An Iron ball does not reflect anything on its own.  On touching it we know it as dark and cold.  Blacksmith makes it hot on fire and the ball becomes red.  In that light of heat of the ball, everything is seen clearly.  Fire has no form and its nature is to burn.  Fire lends existence to the iron ball and fire is the reflected heat in the ball.  the fire has given brilliance to the ball.  Iron ball illumines because of fire.  Thus, ego is illuminated by the borrowed consciousness of the mind which in turn has borrowed from the ultimate consciousness.  The person will be in the reflectional model all his life without understanding from where the glaze is coming from.  Samsara belongs to the ahankara – ‘I’ thought.  The iron ball thinks ‘I am radiant’.  Fire is not affected by anything.

Reflected consciousness borrowed from consciousness, by the mind, makes the mind think it is independent.  The ego plays, carried away by the reflectional model, paramartika model does not exist anymore for the mind.  Same is the case with Bhakti which is devotion to a lord.  Lord is omnipresent and not restricted to time and space.  A vedanti stays above all this.  He knows that the borrowed concept of bhakti is borrowed from the original concept of paramartika reality, for the purposes of vyavahirika.  तत् त्वम् असी says I am not this , I am that brahman.  Due to this association of ahankara with reflected consciousness, deha also gets illumined or is sentient and the body says, ‘I am doing this’ and does actions.  Samsara is therefore for the Jiva.  Inside if your heart is clean, it shows on the face.

How the mind works and overpowers the Atma, an example through a story given by swami Dayananda Saraswati: A person attends a wedding dressed up like a gentleman with a coat and a tie.  First, he goes to the boy’s side.  People think he is a friend of the bridegroom and pamper him.  Then he goes to the girl’s side and tells them that boy’s side are doing a lot more than the girl’s side.  The girl’s side think he is from the boy’s side and pamper him.  He reaps all the benefits from both the sides.  In this way, he keeps alternating to enjoy the benefits from both sides.  At one point of time, the girl and the boy’s side start questioning about his identity.  Aham buddhi and antha karana rupini are the two sides of the wedding party and the unknown person is the mind.  He becomes a target of inquiry.  Now that unknown person feels threatened and quietly leaves.

When the mind is questioned, mind buddhi will disappear.  When the mind is questioned, at that time, one comes to learn Shastram.  In meditation, good and bad thoughts come. As a sakshi you are aware of both the thoughts.  The moments we say, ‘good thoughts come and bad thoughts go’, and keep on interrogating, then only good thoughts stay within us.  Mind becomes calmer.

Due to association of ahankara, the reflected consciousness from the mind, pervades the body, giving sentiency to the body and we do karma accordingly.  Consciousness does not belong to the same order of reality as we are.  It is not known to us.  Atma cannot have a samsara and anatma being a Jada cannot have a samsara too.  Jiva is an individual, a concoction of atma and anatma with reflected consciousness lending existence to the Body-mind-sense complex.  Atma is akarta, i.e. does not do actions.  All the karmas that are done is related to the body-sense-mind complex.  Atma gives only light.  In case of electricity, we can keep a tube light illumining the whole room or keep only one focussed upon us.  Samsara is for the jiva.  From the reflected consciousness to the deha, all are Mithya.

For instance, the sun reflects on a bucket filled with water.  When the water is transferred to another bucket, the reflection is also transferred.  Reflection can happen only in physical body. Consciousness does not require another light.  It is स्वयं विभात्यथान्यानि भासयेत्साधानं विना i.e. self-illuming, without any other means.

 

Verse 3 to 6

Drg Drishya viveka is prakarana grantha treatise, extracted from Upanishads and therefore, will not contradict the Upanishads.  The text is written by Swami Vidyaranya.  Since the unfolding method is like Panchadashi, another text written by swami Vidyaranya, Drg Drishya vivekas authorship is attributed to him.

We see different colours/shapes/forms with our sense organ, Eye, which does not multiply with the multiplicity of forms, shapes, or colours.  Similarly, seeing a blue or yellow colour, our eyes do not become blue or yellow or with every shape and size eye does not change.  Blindness, dullness, or sharpness are the very dharma/job/nature of the eye.  The mind which is one perceives and lends existence to the eye.  Mind is One and reflects many thoughts and sense organs.  When the sense organs deteriorate over a period, the mind cognizes that too.

Verse 4

काम: संकल्पसन्देहौ श्रद्धाSश्रद्धे धृतीतरे  l

ह्रीर्धीर्भीरित्येवमादीन  भासयत्येकधा चिति: ll

Meanings:

काम: desire;  संकल्प  determination or resolve;  सन्देह doubt;  श्रद्धा faith;  अश्रधा having no faith or absence of faith;  ध्रुतिः fortitude (courage in adversity)/firm;  इतरे not firm/unsteady/lack of fortitude;  ह्री: shyness;  धीः knowledge  भीःfear;  इति एवमादीन and of such nature;  एकधा being one and same-without changing itself;  चिति: sakshi/pure consciousness/ shuddha Chaitanya;   भासयती illumines.

Consciousness illumines desire, determination, doubts, faith, having no faith, fortitude, lack of fortitude, shyness, knowledge, fear, and of such nature.  Being One and same without changing itself, Consciousness illumines.

Desire, firmness, doubt, shyness, fear, are the work of the mind.  Even for consciousness, there must be a reflecting medium and our mind plays that role.  In a deep sleep state or death, mind is not transactable.  Therefore, consciousness is not manifested.  A person stands before a mirror and sees his reflection.  When the mirror is taken away, it does not mean he does not exist.  The reflecting medium is absent.  In the morning after a deep sleep, we can reflect that we slept well or dreamt or had a disturbed sleep.  Consciousness is always available as a waker, dreamer and as a sleeper.

The Observer is not observed.  If Brahman is a creator, then when the creator is born is questionable.  All creators are time bound.  In Advaita, the terminology creation is never used.  Everything is a manifestation of consciousness/brahman.  Consciousness is not bound by time.

A person can do multiple tasks with One mind.  He can scratch his hand or nose and read a book or even cook food.  He can also hear many sounds or see many colours/shapes simultaneously.

Verse 5

नोदेति नास्तमेत्येषा न वृद्धिं याति न क्षयं  l

स्वयं विभात्यथान्यानि भासयेत्साधानं विना ll

न उदेति not rise;  न अस्तम् does not set;  एषा this;  न वृद्धिम् does not increase;  याति undergo;  न क्षयं does not deteriorate;  स्वयं by itself;  विभाति shines;  अथ also;  अन्यानि other objects;  विना साधनम् without aids/ efforts;  भासयते illumines/reveals itself

This does not rise, does not set, does not increase, does not undergo deterioration.  It shines by itself and illumines other objects, without efforts/aids.

Awareness or consciousness is reflected through the medium of mind.  Or instance, when we see our reflection in the mirror, mirror is the mind and we ourselves are consciousness.  If mirror is taken away, even then we are there, but, the reflecting medium is absent.

In the guru stotram no. 2, atma is described thus: एकम् (One), नित्यम् (permanent), विमलं (pure), अचलम् (remains same), सर्वाधी साक्षी भूतम् (witness in all living beings), भाव अतीतम् (beyond emotions), त्रिगुण रहितम् (devoid of three gunas-sattvic, rajasic and tamasic), सद्गुरुम् तम् नमामि (I salute you).

In bhagavad gita, chapter 2 verse 27:

जातस्य हि ध्रुवो मृत्युर्ध्रुवं जन्म मृतस्य च ।

तस्मादपरिहार्येSर्थे न त्वं शोचितुमर्हसि ll
jatasya hi dhruvo mrtyur dhruvam janma mrtasya cha

tasmadapariharye arthe na tvam shochitum arhasi

For that which is born, death is certain, and that which is dead birth is certain.  Therefore, you ought not to grieve over that which cannot be altered.

Consciousness has no birth or death.  It is ajaha (अजाः).  It is svayambhu (स्वयम्भू)-self created and does not change in any situation.

जाग्रत्स्वप्नसुषुप्तिषु स्फुटतरा या सम्विदुज्ज्रिंभते

याब्रह्मादिपिपीलिकान्ततनुषु प्रोता जगत् सक्षिणी

Atma/consciousness is available in all the three states- Jagrat, swapna, and sushupti avastha.  In all the three states, it clearly shines. Right from brahma up to an ant, every living thing has Consciousness, available as sakshi of Jagat.  When we say Namaste as a greeting, instead of shaking hands, as practiced in the west adopted the world over, it means we bow down to the supreme being residing in that person.

The sun illuminates everything.  There is no question of sun rising or setting.  It does not require any other power to illuminate it.  The nature of Sun is self-shining and illuminates everything on its path.  For instance, place a bucket of water in a room, with a small hole in the wall for the sun’s rays to pass.  The rays passing through the hole fall on the water and the room gets illuminated with the reflections falling on the walls around.

All forms in the universe are modified forms of Brahman.  Mind is so fast, so thoughts too travel very fast.  All thoughts are impermanent and therefore, Mithya.  Sthitha pragya (स्थित प्रज्ञा) is the nature of Consciousness.  It is neither happy nor sad in any situation.  This same quality can be applied to one’s own personality thereby attempting to achieve a balanced approach in life.  If “ness” from Consciousness and Awareness is removed, only Conscious and Aware remains.

Drg Drsya Viveka

Introduction

Viveka means understanding or having a discriminative knowledge of what is Truth and Untruth.  In our day-to-day life too, we should use this principle.  For instance, when we buy rice from ration shop, it is mixed with impurities.  We find black stones, red stones, and white coloured stones too.  Mixing stones in rice increases the weight of the rice, thereby increasing the profit margin.  Before cooking we should separate all the stones from rice.  It is easier to separate coloured stones but not the white coloured ones.  They are so camouflaged in the actual rice that, separating them becomes very difficult.  For separating the impurities, we need viveka.  Likewise, our body and consciousness are so entwined that we fail to think of body and consciousness as separate.  There is no difference between body and consciousness, the discriminative knowledge of separating both is unavailable.  At this juncture shastram is the only tool with the help of which one can understand the Nitya-anitya vastu viveka.

In the Katho Upanishad, there is a topic on Shreyas and Preyas.  Shreyas is the path of ultimate Good, giving long term benefits.  Preyas is something that we like, giving short term benefits.  We always have an option of choosing between the long term and short term benefits.  As we go through different stages of life, this becomes difficult.  For instance, when we endure a lot of pain, we go to a doctor for medication.  Temporarily the medicines work.  We revel in the happiness for sometimes.  After a few days, the gnawing ache returns.  Like a rollercoaster, the cycle of pain and medication continue.  The study of Vedanta leads to moksha meaning it makes us samachit or balanced or sthithapragya.  We neither enjoy or reject any situation.  We do not blame anybody or even our own selves.  It helps to condition and discipline our mind.

Prakriya is a method of analysis.  Panchadashi uses Anvaya vyatirekha.  Bhagwat gita uses Kshetram and Kshetragya principle to separate Atma and Body.  All the prakriya (analysis) cannot be done physically but only cognitively.

One may ask the question, what is the purpose of my studying the analytical methods.  We always have a misconception about ourselves being the attributes and superimpose these attributes on the Atma which is attributeless.  For example, we often say – I am short, I am tall, I am rich, I am neglected, etc.  In “I am”, “am” gets added to everything and this is called Adhyaropa or superimposition of “am” on the “I”, which is independent and complete by itself.  It becomes necessary in the vyavahirika purposes to identify ourselves with “am”.  To separately understand “I”, the “am” aspect must be removed which is impermanent.  Due to the entwinement of the sharira and atma, an individual thinks he is that attribute to which he is identifying himself, as he does not have the methodology of separating body-sense-mind-atma complex.

For example, an iron ball, which is black in colour, and cold on the exterior surface, becomes hot and red when exposed to fire.  It also starts glowing after some time.  Now the iron ball is glowing because of the fire which does not have a form.  It is the fire that is glowing through the upadhi of a ball.  Fire itself is unattached to the ball.  In fact, the ball takes the property of the fire.  The iron ball has borrowed the property of fire and so it is hot, and glowing red due to heat.  Similarly, Atma does not have any property of its own – attributeless.  It gets an identity through the body-mind-sense complex which consists of Sthoola sharira, sukshma sharira, karana sharira and Atma.

Drg Drishya Viveka is a prakarana grantha.  All prakarana granthas are part of Upanishads.  They are short and concise treatise and will never deviate from Upanishad, despite having an independent existence.  They lend support to the teachings of Upanishads.  The unfolding of an individual is different in tattvabodha and Drg drishya viveka.  Study of Vedanta encompasses the following:

  1. Jiva – Individual – Analysis of the individual (Vyashti vichara – sukshma, karana, Sthoola sharira)
  2. Ishwara – Analysis of the total (samashti)- Macrocosm.
  3. Jagat – Analysis of the cosmos or universe
  4. Bandhaha – What is samsara
  5. Moksha – Freedom from bondage
  6. Sadhanani – Means of accomplishing the freedom from bondage.

Unless a person has a vision for studying Vedanta, one cannot continue this path.  A person studying under a teacher for many years starts glowing with knowledge.

Verse 1

रूपम् दृश्यं लोचनम् दृक्  तदृश्यं  दृक्त्तु मानसम् l

दृश्याधीव्रुत्तयः साक्षी दृगेव न तु दृश्यते ll

Meanings: रूपम् form; दृश्यं is perceived; लोचनम् eyes; दृक् perceiver; तत् that; दृश्यं is perceived दृक् perceiver; तु but; मानसम् mind; दृश्या are perceived; धीव्रुत्तयः mind’s modifications (like what is to be seen or not to be seen); साक्षी witness; दृक् एव is verily the perceiver; न तु is not; दृश्यते perceived or seen.

The form is perceived by the eyes (organ of perception).  The perceiver/ seer is perceived/seen by the mind.  The mind is verily perceived/ seen by the sakshi/witness, which is not perceived. For the external objects, eye is the seer no. 1.  Eye itself is an inert organ.  In some cases, even if golakam (physical part) is there, a person is blind because of the lack of the power for reflection.  Without the mind, eye cannot function.  As in the case of an electric bulb, filament and bulb are the upadhi for electricity.  The electricity is lending its existence to the filament and bulb.  Mind is also inert.  Eye must be reflected in conjunction with mind.  Mind is also reflected by consciousness or Sakshi or Witness, which cannot be seen.  When a person dies, mind goes away, for non-availability of an upadhi.

Summary:

  1. Eye is the first illuminator reflecting all external objects/forms/colours, etc.  It is Seer no. 1.
  2. Mind reflects the eye and lends existence to the golakam.  Mind is seer no. 2.
  3. Mind is reflected by the sakshi or witness.  If witness is not there, mind cannot exist.  Sakshi is the ultimate seer/perceiver.

Same conclusion can be drawn for other sense organs also.  For example, a child is fondled by many people.  However, it can easily find out the touch of its mother.  Sakshi is self-illumined.  Perfumes/odours can be distinctly recognized by the one and only sense organ, nose.  Annamaya kosha is one but experiences are many and varied.  Sakshi reveals everything.  That we are alive, able to talk, see, hear, is self-evident that consciousness is alive in us.  It cannot be seen or described.  When the mind, which itself is illumined by Atma, can travel at a great speed, then we can imagine the ultimate seer, consciousness and the scope of its brilliance to be infinite.

On the death of a person or deep sleep state, eyes do not function because mind is not there.  Therefore, sakshi cannot reflect after death and is in the unmanifest form.  Very subtle vaasanaas of the mind leave the body when a person dies.

Verses from 2, 3, 4, and 5 are sub-divisions of the 1st verse, each verse giving an explanation, to enable us to arrive at the ultimate seer-consciousness.

Verse 2

नीलपीत स्थूल सूक्ष्म हृस्वदीर्घादि भेदत: l

नाना विधानि रूपाणि पश्येल्लोचनमेकधा ll

Meanings:

नील blue;  पीत yellow;  स्थूल the gross;  सूक्ष्म the subtle;  हृस्व short;  दीर्घ long;    आदि etc.;  भेदत: can see differences;  नाना विधानि various;  रूपाणि forms;  पश्येत् perceives;  लोचनम् eyes;  एकधा as one

The eyes can perceive/ see the difference in colours like blue, yellow, gross, subtle, short, long, etc.  The eyes which is one, sees various forms.  Regarding the objects, eye is the only perceiver.Eye can see different colours besides blue and yellow.  Ultimately when all colours are mixed together, black is derived.  Therefore, different colours and shades, gross, subtle, short or long, irrespective of the colours, shape and size, eye as one whole, sees them.  The oneness of vision is emphasised in the above verse.  Similarly, we can apply the same logic, for other organs of perception, say, nose.  We can smell a variety of scents simultaneously with only one nose.  We can see 10 elephants with one vision of eye.  To see 10 elephants, we don’t require 10 eyes.  Different sounds can be heard say, in a traffic signal, with a single and oneness of the hearing power of the ears.  The objects change but the perceiver is One and constant.

Verse 3

आन्ध्यमान्ध्यपटुत्वेषु नेत्रधर्मेषु चैकधा l

संकल्पयेन्मन: श्रोत्रत्वगादौ योज्यतामिदं ll

आन्ध्य blindness;  मान्ध्य dullness;  पटुत्वेषु sharpness;  यन मनः this mind;  च एकधा also as one;  संकल्पयेत  cognitive way;  इदं this;  श्रोत्र ears;  त्वक् skin;  आदौ etc.;  योज्यताम् as applicable.  नेत्रधर्म dharma of the eye

Due to superimposition of characteristics(dharma) of the eye, like blindness, dullness and sharpness, upon the eye, (an organ of perception and reporter to the mind), the mind, which is also One, can perceive the eye and lends existence in a cognitive way.

Eye as an organ of perception and subject to changes, is perceived by the mind.  As reporters to the mind, it is the mind that understands the characteristics like blindness, dullness and sharpness, etc.  This logic can be extended to other sense organs like nose, ears touch, etc.  The mind is the perceiver and sense organs are objects of perception.

In Guru stotram, it is said- “Because of Agyanam, I have become blind.  Just like an ointment when applied over the eyes, cures blindness, likewise a teacher unfolds the blindness by teaching shastram”.