​Drg Drishya Viveka – Chapter 2 verse 1 and 2 -Nature of the Individual

Who is a samsari?
Samsara is a cycle of bodage for an individual whichmakes him go round and round in circles.  An individual is a combination of Atma and Anatma.  Atma doe not have attributes.  So it cannot be a samsari.  What about the mind?  Can it be a samsari?  The answer is yes because we usually identify ourselves with the body-mind-sense complex.  This is a Jadam.  A table/chair/animal cannot be a samsari, because it doesn’t have anything to reflect.  Mind, a subtle matter, is inert.  Sthoola shariram is gross body and mind is also gross matter and inert.  Mind being inert by itself, reflects body-sense-mind complex, therefore none of that can become a samsari.  Who can be a samsari?  

To arrive at Atma, absolute reality, trough apavada ( negation), according to Upanishads, we have to look at the object having a dependent reality or dependent for its existence on something existence or having an independent reality or independent  existence.  Then we have to negate all that is known.  From known to the unknown objects, we have to move backwards negating all objects,– neti-neti principle, ultimately nothing can be negated any further. 

For instance, eyes see a rose.  Mind sees the eye which is seen by consciousness.  The object rose is known and is part of universe.

Another example:  we see a cotton shirt.  A vedanti will go a few steps further to analyse.  Shirt is made of threads interwoven together, to give a cloth form, which is from yarn.  Yarn is made of cotton which comes from cotton pods growing on a plant.  All this is known to us and part of Universe.  These are subject to time and space which is Maya/Mithya within brahman.  We as a shudha chaitanya, are ever present as a knower.

An individual is a combination of nitya and anitya i.e.Atma and Anatma.  For Jivatma, the individual, samsara is applicable.  Both combine and operate together creating samsara. The individual has the brightness of consciousness and dullness or anityam of body-sense-mind complex.  For a person who is in coma, doesn’t matter.  Due to the work of intelligence the problem of samsara arises and this study shows how we are trapped in this wheel of samsara.  

Verse 1

चिच्छाया SSवेशतो बुद्धौ भानं धीस्तु द्विधा स्थिता l

एकाहङ्क्रुतिरन्या स्यादन्त: करण रूपिणी ll


बुद्धौ in the buddhi;  चित् छाया shadow of consciousness;  आवेशतो on entering;  भानं appears to possess reflection(brightness)/luminosity;  द्विधा two-fold;  स्थिता is;   एक one;  अहंक्रुति ego (I am doing this) – taken from tattva bodha);  धीः intelligence;  तु and;  ;  स्यात् is;  अन्या other;  अंत: करण रूपिणी inner instrument (for actions);  

The shadow of consciousness on entering the buddhi, appears to reflect brightness, two-fold.  One on ego or subject and other is nature of inner instrument.

The mind is inert and therefore cannot reflect on its own.  Buddhi appears to have luminosity as reflection of Consciousness.  Mind is borrowing true consciousness.  Due to the infusion of Consciousness, into the mind,  the inert mind gets luminosity.  Consciousness needs to have an Upadhi.  On its own it cannot reflect.  If the mind is not there, consciousness will not be manifested.  Mind borrows the luminosity from consciousness and through that borrowed luminosity and through that brilliance it the enters the entire body-mind- sense complex.  Mind doesn’t become consciousness.  Now the luminosity is transferred to the body-mind-sense complex and that is the reason, we have the power to see, touch, speak, etc.  In the borrowed brilliance from consciousness everything is lit up and becomes known.  It is pratibimba (प्रतिबिम्ब) philosophy.

For instance, 

In a dark room there is a bucket filled with water.  By itself, water cannot reflect.  Through a small hole in the wall, the rays of the sun pass and fall on the water and go up to the roof.  Water is borrowing luminosity from the sun.  Now the whole room gets slightly illuminated. 

In a school, some of the kids hold a small mirror in such a way that the rays of the sun fall on the mirror and hit somebody on the face.  Mirror only reflects.  If there is no sun, the mirror doesn’t do anything.  Sun is only ONE.   Reflection of the sun’s rays on the mirror creates an illusion that, now object is transmitted to another place.  Reflecting medium mirror, has the capacity to reflect.  If the medium does not have the reflection capacity, it will not be illumined.

Similarly, our body also is able to do karma because everything comes from the mind.  Since mind has the capacity to reflect, mind borrows reflection from pure consciousness and it tries to shine.  In that brilliance everything gets lit up.  The medium must have the capacity to reflect.  Reflection is a model or prakriya.  Prakriya is a method/model to arrive at an inference.  There are different methods.  The reflection model is also called Pratibimba nyaya.  Bimba means object and prati means see your own object.  Nyaya means philososphy.

There are two orders of reality – Paramarthika reality or satyam and vyavaharika reality or transactional reality (satyam).  Paramarthika reality belongs to the ultimate satyam and will not get affected by anything.  It is an eternal satyam.  Through reflection alone, mind gets illumine.  Mind along with the body-mind-sense complex, belongs to the vyavaharika satyam.  It assumes attributes such as ‘I am this’ and ‘I am that’ purely goes by reflection model.  

Every day we see ourselves in the mirror.  We don’t have the same face every day. One day, face looks happy, another day sad, etc.  When the mirror is taken away, still we are there.  Only the reflecting medium is absent.  The mirror is only a reflecting medium.  When the reflecting medium is clear, our face is clear in the reflection.  However, if the medium is cracked or tainted, say, over a period of time, the reflection is bad.  If the mind is bad, then everything looks bad.  ‘I AM short/black/ugly,etc’ is superimposed on the Atma.  We cannot look at ourselves and have to depend on the reflecting medium.  If mind is bad,  we superimpose that on the Atma and we think, of ourselves as that attribute which is conveyed by the mind, because the reflecting medium, mind, is not clear.  We are actually belonging to the Paramarthika Satyam or reality and need not have the feeling of negativity.   

For instance, if the Sun is reflected on clean water, it is clearly visible with its rays spreading across, in its entirety.  However, when it is reflected on a dirty pond or swamp, the brightness is hardly visible and cannot reflect.  Sun is the one and same but the reflecting mediums are different.  If the medium is not good, our understanding is not good and, then naturally our reflection is not good.  This is the samsara we are talking about.  Samsara is a person because the mind is inseparable from the body.  

When we are born, Ahamkriti (अहंक्रुति) is also born with us.  This ego will always be there.  If it is allowed to grow to such an extent, it will overshadow everything and the reflection will become truth.  Anything that is known to us in name or form is Mithya, belonging to the sphere of pancha bhutas, pancha pranas and pancha indriyas, manah and buddhi.

Even the lord in vaikuntha – super consciousness has to take an avatara as a mortal human being, to do the job of God, through the body-mind-sense complex.  Sitting in vaikuntha, Krishna could not have preached Bhagwat Gita.  The avatars have to transcend to reality of vyavaharika along with Ahamkriti.  They also die as mortals.  Any avatara taken has to die.  Physical body has to be left behind.

Quoting a story: Trishanku, was a devotee of guru sage vishwamitra.  He did extreme penance and wanted to go to heaven with his body to Indra-loka.  Lord Indra refused admission saying he cannot come with the physical body, but a different body.  When a person dies, karmas have to be performed and pindams offered.  For thirteen days 13 pindams are offered and the sukshma travels.  Sage vishwamitra tells him that through his tapas he will send him to Indra-loka directly with his body.  Everytime Trishanku goes with his body, Indra sends him back and he is thereby stuck in the middle.  He is neither in Indra-loka nor in bhu-loka.  So he is hanging in the middle.  

We have to leave everything and go.  Once we keep attaching ourselves to ahamkriti we will be in samsara forever.  

Union is possible only if the orders of reality is same.  Consciousness belongs to the paramarthika reality and Body-mind-sense complex belongs to the vyavaharika reality.  This reflected consciousness is borrowed and the union is a samsari.

For instance, the moon borrows light from the sun.  if the moon thinks it is self-illumining, then there is an identity problem.  Similarly, if a wave thinks it is not belonging to the water, the wave is ignorant that it exists only because of water.  

Who is a suffering from samsara? A samsara is a person with ahamkruti or having association with reflected consciousness and body-mind-sense complex.  Reflected body-mind-sense complex gives a false notion that I am consciousness.  Electricity cannot be seen and it requires a tungsten filament to illumine.  Bulb is borrowing luminosity from electricity.  However electricity requires an upadhi to illuminate.

Mind has 2 things- ahamkruti (which thinks) and karana buddhi(tell to do).  We always do actions given by a thought.  Every action is known to us and thoughts are behind those actions.  Sometimes we have a guilt feeling after doing some action.  This two-fold nature of mind ahamkruti and anthakarana rupini it tells us the thought and also tells the action.  Atma cannot be a samsara.  Atma cannot do any task.  Mind is inert by nature.  It borrows luminosityfrom consciousness.  This association of reflected consciousness and body-sense-mind complex is samsara.  Anatma cannot be a samsari.  

Verse 2

छायाSहङ्कारयोरैक्यम्  तत्पाय: पिण्डवन्मतम्  l

तदहङ्कारतादात्म्या द्येहश्चेतनतामगात  ll


छाया reflected consciousness;  अहंकार : ego;  ऐक्यं becomes one or union of the same reality order or identity;  तप्त made red hot (by fire) अयःiron पिण्डवत् मतम् opinion like red hot iron ball considers(itself to be self-radiant);  तत् अहंकार due to association of ahankara;  देहा physical body;  चेतनl brilliance;  आगात् one who attains.  तादात्म्यात् owing to identification

Reflected consciousness with ego becomes one, just like a red hot iron ball.

An Iron ball does not reflect anything on its own.  On touching it we know it as dark and cold.  Blacksmith makes it hot on fire and the ball becomes red.  In that light of heat of the ball, everything is seen clearly.  Fire has no form and its nature is to burn.  Fire lends existence to the iron ball and fire is seen as the reflected heat in the ball .  the fire has given brilliance to the ball.  Iron ball illumines because of fire.  Thus, ego is illuminated by the borrowed consciousness of the mind which in turn has borrowed from the ultimate consciousness.  The person will be in the reflectional model all his life without understanding from where the glaze is coming from.  Samsara belongs to the ahankara –‘I’ thought.  The iron ball thinks ‘I am radiant’.  Fire is not affected by anything. 

Reflected consciousness borrowed from consciousness, by the mind, makes the mind think it is independent.  The ego plays, carried away by the reflectional model, paramarthika model does not exist anymore for the mind.  Same is the case with Bhakti which is devotion to a lord.  Lord is omnipresent and not restricted to time and space.  A vedanti stays above all this.  He knows that the borrowed concept of bhakti is actually borrowed from the original concept of paramarthika reality, for the purposes of vyavaharika.  तत् त्वम् असी says I am not this , I am that brahman.  Due to this association of ahankara with reflected consciousness, deha also gets illumined or is sentient and the body says ‘I am doing this’ and does actions.  Samsara is therefore for the Jiva.  Inside if your heart is clean, it shows on the face.

How the mind works and overpowers the Atma, an example through a story given by swami dayananda saraswati:

A person attends a wedding dressed up like a gentleman with a coat and a tie.  First he goes to the boy’s side.  People think he is a friend of the bridegroom and pamper him.  Then he goes to the girl’s side and tells them that boy’s side are doing a lot more than the girl’s side.  The girl’s side think he is from the boy’s side and pamper him.  He reaps all the benefits from both the sides.  In this way he keeps alternating to enoy the benefits from both sides.  At one point of time, the girl and the boy’s side start questioning about his identity.  Aham buddhi and antha karan rupini are the two sides of the wedding party and the unknown person is the mind.  He becomes a target of inquiry.  Now that unknown person feels threatened and quietly leaves.  

When the mind is questioned, mind buddhi will disappear.  When the mind is questioned, at that time, one comes to learn Shastram.  In meditation, good and bad thoughts come. As a sakshi you are aware of both the thoughts..  The moments we say ‘good thoughts come and bad thoughts go’,and keep on interrogating,  then only good thoughts stay within us.  Mind becomes calmer.

Due to association of ahankara, the reflected consciousness from the mind, pervades the body, giving sentiency to the body and we do karma accordingly.  Consciousness does not belong to the same order of reality as we are.  It is not known to us.  Atma cannot have a samsara and anatma being a Jada cannot have a samsara too.  .  Jiva is an individual, a concoction of atma and anatma with reflected consciousness lending existence to the Body-mind-sense complex.  Atma is akarta, i.e. does not do actions.  All the karmas that are done is related to the body-sense-mind complex.  Atma gives only light.  In case of electricity, we can keep a tube light illumining the whole room or keep only one focussed upon us.  Samsara is for the jiva.  From the reflected consciousness to the deha, all are mithya. 

For instance, the sun reflects on a bucket filled with water.  When the water is transferred to another bucket, the reflection is also transferred.  Reflection can happen only in physical body. Consciousness does not require another light.  It is स्वयं विभात्यथान्यानि भासयेत्साधानं विना i.e. self-illuming, without any other means. 

Drg Drsya Viveka Verse 1 to 5

Verse 1
रूपम् दृश्यं लोचनम् दृक्  तदृश्यं  दृक्त्तु मानसम् l

दृश्या धीव्रुत्तयः साक्षी दृगेव न तु दृश्यते ll

Verse 2

नीलपीत स्थूल सूक्ष्म हृस्वदीर्घादि भेदत: l

नाना विधानि रूपाणि पश्येल्लोचनमेकधा ll

Verse 3

आन्ध्यमान्ध्यपटुत्वेषु नेत्रधर्मेषु चैकधा l

संकल्पयेन्मन: श्रोत्रत्वगादौ योज्यतामिदं ll

Verse 4

काम: संकल्पसन्देहौ श्रद्धाSश्रद्धे धृतीतरे  l

हृर्धीर्भीरित्येवमादीन  भासयत्येकधा चिति: ll

Verse 5

नोदेति नास्तमेत्येषा न वृद्धिं याति न क्षयं  l

स्वयं विभात्यथान्यानि भासयेत्साधानं विना ll

Verse 6

Viveka means understanding or having a discriminative knowledge of what is Truth and Untruth.  In our day-to-day life too, we have to use this principle.  For instance, when we buy rice from ration shop, it is mixed with impurities.  We find black stones, red stones, and white coloured stones too.  Mixing stones in rice increases the weight of the rice, thereby increasing the profit margin.  Before cooking we have to separate all the stones from rice.  It is easier to separate coloured stones but not the white coloured ones.  They are so camouflaged in the actual rice that, separating them becomes very difficult.  For separating the impurities we need viveka.  Likewise, our body and consciousness are so entwined that we fail to think of body and consciousness as seperate.  There is no difference between body and consciousness,  The discriminative knowledge of separating both is unavailable.  At this juncture shastram is the only tool with the help of which one can understand the Nitya-anitya vastu viveka.  

In the Katho Upanishad, there is a topic on Shreyas and Preyas.  Shreyas is the path of ultimate Good, giving long term benefits.  Preyas is something that we like, giving short term benefits.  We always have an option of choosing between the long term and short term benefits.  As we go through different stages of life, this becomes difficult.  For instance, when we endure a lot of pain, we go to a doctor for medication.  Temporarily the medicines work.  We revel in the happiness for sometimes.  After a few days the gnawing ache returns.  Like a rollercoaster the cycle of pain and medication continue.  The study of Vedanta leads to moksha meaning it makes us samachit or balanced or sthithapragya.  We neither enjoy or reject any situation.  We do not blame anybody or even our own selves.  It helps to condition and discipline our mind.

Prakriya is a method of analysis.  Panchadashi uses Anvaya vyatirekha.  Bhagwat gita uses Kshetram and Kshetragya principle to separate Atma and Body.  All the prakriya (analysis) cannot be done physically but only cognitively.

One may ask the question, what is the purpose of my studying the analytical methods.  We always have a misconception about ourselves being the attributes and superimpose these attributes on the Atma which is attributeless.  For example we often say – I am short, I am tall, I am rich, I am neglected, etc.  In “I am”, “am” gets added to everything and this is called Adyaropa or superimposition of “am” on the “I”, which is independent and complete by itself.  It becomes necessary in the vyavaharika purposes to identify ourselves with “am”.  To separately understand “I”, the “am” aspect has to be removed which is impermanent.  Due to the entwinement of the shariram and atma, an individual thinks he is that attribute to which he is identifying himself, as he does not have the methodology of separating body-sense-mind-atma complex.

For example, an iron ball, which is black in colour, and cold on the exterior surface, becomes hot and red when exposed to fire.  It also starts glowing after sometime.  Now the iron ball is glowing because of the fire which does not have a form.  It is the fire that is glowing through the upadhi of a ball.  Fire itself is unattached to the ball.  In fact the ball takes the property of the fire.  The iron ball has borrowed the property of fire and so it is hot, and glowing red due to heat.  Similarly, Atma does not have any property of its own – attributeless.  It gets an identity through the body-mind-sense complex which consists of sthoola shariram, sukshma shariram, karana shariram and Atma. 

Drg drishya Viveka is a prakarana granth.  All prakarna granthas are part of Upanishads.  They are short and concise treatise and will never deviate from Upanishad, despite having an independent existence.  They lend support to the teachings of Upanishads.  The unfolding of an individual is different in tattvabodha and Drg drishya viveka.  Study of Vedanta encompasses the following :

1. Jiva – Individual – Analysis of the individual (Vyashti vichara – sukshma, karana, Sthoola shariram)

2. Ishwara – Analysis of the total (samashti)- Macrocosm.

3. Jagat – Analysis of the cosmos or universe

4. Bandhaha – What is samsara

5. Moksha – Freedom from bondage

6. Sadhanani – Means of accomplishing the freedom from bondage.

Unless a person has a vision for studying Vedanta, one cannot continue on this path.  A person studying under a teacher for many years starts glowing with knowledge.

Verse 1

रूपम् दृश्यं लोचनम् दृक्  तदृश्यं  दृक्त्तु मानसम् l

दृश्याधीव्रुत्तयः साक्षी दृगेव न तु दृश्यते ll

Meanings: रूपम् form; दृश्यं is perceived;  लोचनम् eyes;  दृक् perceiver;  तत् that;  दृश्यं  is perceived  दृक् perceiver;  तु but;  मानसम् mind;  दृश्या are perceived;  धीव्रुत्तयः mind’s modifications (like what is to be seen or not to be seen);  साक्षी witness;  दृक् एव is verily the perceiver;  न तु is not;  दृश्यते perceived or seen.

The form is perceived by the eyes( organ of perception).  The perceiver/ seer is perceived/seen by the mind.  The mind is verily perceived/ seen by the sakshi/witness, which is not perceived.

For the external objects, eye is the seer no. 1.  Eye itself is an inert organ.  In some cases, even if golakkam(physical part) is there, a person is blind because of the lack of the the power for reflection.  Without the mind, eye cannot function.  As in the case of an electric bulb, filament and bulb are the upadhi for electricity.  The electricity is lending its existence to the filament and bulb.  

Mind is also inert.  Eye has to be reflected in conjunction with mind.  Mind is also reflected by consciousness or Sakshi or Witness, which cannot be seen.  When a person dies, mind goes away, for non-availability of an upadhi.


1. Eye is the first illuminator reflecting all external objects/forms/colours, etc.  It is Seer no. 1.

2. Mind reflects the eye and lends existence to the golakkam.  Mind is seer no. 2.

3. Mind is reflected by the sakshi or witness.  If witness is not there, mind cannot exist.  Sakshi is the ultimate seer/perceiver.

Same conclusion can be drawn for other sense organs also.  For example, a child is fondled by many people.  However, it can easily find out the touch of its mother.  Sakshi is self illumined.  Perfumes/odors can be distinctly recognized by the one and only sense organ, nose.  Annamaya kosha is one but experiences are many and varied.  Sakshi reveals everything.  That we are alive, able to talk, see, hear, is self evident that consciousness is alive in us.  It cannot be seen or described.  When the mind, which itself is illumined by Atma, can travel at a great speed, then we can imagine the ultimate seer, consciousness and the scope of its brilliance to be infinite.  

On the death of a person or deep sleep state, eyes do not function because mind is not there.  Therefore, sakshi cannot reflect after death and is in the unmanifested form.  Very very subtle vasanas of the mind leave the body when a person dies.

Verses from 2, 3, 4, and 5 are sub-divisions of the 1st verse, each verse giving an explanation, so as to enable us to arrive at the ultimate seer-consciousness.

Verse 2

नीलपीत स्थूल सूक्ष्म हृस्वदीर्घादि भेदत: l

नाना विधानि रूपाणि पश्येल्लोचनमेकधा ll


नील blue;  पीत yellow;  स्थूल the gross;  सूक्ष्म the subtle;  हृस्व short;  दीर्घ long;    आदि etc.;  भेदत: can see differences;  नाना विधानि various;  रूपाणि forms;  पश्येत् perceives;  लोचनम् eyes;  एकधा as one

The eyes can perceive/ see the difference in colors like blue, yellow, gross, subtle, short, long, etc.  The eyes which is one, sees various forms.  With reference to the objects, eye is the only perceiver.

Eye can see different colours besides blue and yellow.  Ultimately when all colours are mixed together, black is derived.  Therefore, different colours and shades, gross, subtle, short or long, irrespective of the colours, shape and size, eye as one whole, sees them.  The oneness of vision is emphasised in the above verse.  Similarly we can apply the same logic, for other organs of perception, say, nose.  We can smell a variety of scents simultaneously with only one nose.  We can see 10 elephants with one vision of eye.  To see 10 elephants, we don’t require 10 eyes.  Different sounds can be heard say, in a traffic signal, with a single and oneness of the hearing power of the ears.  The objects change but the perceiver is One and constant.

Verse 3

आन्ध्यमान्ध्यपटुत्वेषु नेत्रधर्मेषु चैकधा l

संकल्पयेन्मन: श्रोत्रत्वगादौ योज्यतामिदं ll

आन्ध्य blindness;  मान्ध्य dullness;  पटुत्वेषु sharpness;  यन मनः this mind;  च एकधा also as one;  संकल्पयेत  cognitive way;  इदं this;  श्रोत्र ears;  त्वक् skin;  आदौ etc.;  योज्यताम् as applicable.  नेत्रधर्म dharma of the eye

Due to superimposition of characteristics(dharma) of the eye, like blindness, dullness and sharpness, upon the eye, (an organ of perception and reporter to the mind), the mind, which is also One, is able to perceive the eye and lends existence in a cognitive way.

Eye as an organ of perception and subject to changes, is perceived by the mind.  As reporters to the mind, it is the mind that understands the characteristics like blindness, dullness and sharpness, etc.  This logic can be extended to other sense organs like nose, ears touch, etc.  The mind is the perceiver and sense organs are objects of perception.

In Guru stotram, it is said-“ Because of agyanam, I have become blind.  Just like an ointment when applied over the eyes, cures blindness, likewise a teacher unfolds the blindness by teaching shastram”.

Drg drishya viveka is prakarna granthaor treatise,  extracted from Upanishads and therefore, will not contradict the Upanishads.  The text is writtenby Swami Vidyaranya.  Since the unfolding method is similar to Panchadashi, another text written by swami Vidyaranya,  drg drishya viveka’s authourship is attributed to him.

We see different colours/shapes/forms with our sense organ, Eye, which does not multiply with the multiplicity of forms, shapes, or colours.  Similarly, seeing a blue or yellow colour, our eyes do not become blue or yellow or with every shape and size eye does not change.  Blindness, dullness, or sharpness are the very dharma/job/nature of the eye.  The mind which is one perceives and lends existence to the eye.  Mind is One and reflects many thoughts and sense organs.  When the sense organs deteriorate over a period of time, the mind cognizes that too. 

Verse 4

काम: संकल्पसन्देहौ श्रद्धाSश्रद्धे धृतीतरे  l

ह्रीर्धीर्भीरित्येवमादीन  भासयत्येकधा चिति: ll


काम: desire;  संकल्प  determination or resolve;  सन्देह doubt;  श्रद्धा faith;  अश्रधा having no faith or absence of faith;  ध्रुतिः fortitude (courage in adversity)/firm;  इतरे not firm/unsteady/lack of fortitude;  ह्री: shyness;  धीः knowledge  भीःfear;  इति एवमादीन and of such nature;  एकधा being one and same-without changing itself;  चिति: sakshi/pure consciousness/ shudha chaitanya;   भासयती illumines.

Consciousness illumines desire, determination, doubts, faith, having no faith, fortitude, lack of fortitude, shyness, knowledge, fear, and of such nature.  Being One and same without changing itself, Consciousness illumines.

Desire, firmness, doubt, shyness, fear, are the work of the mind.  Even for consciousness, there has to be a reflecting medium and our mind plays that role.  In a deep sleep state or death, mind is not transactable.  Therefore, consciousness is not manifested.  Aperson stands before a mirror and sees his reflection.  When the mirror is taken away, it does not mean he does not exist.  The reflecting medium is absent.  In the morning after a deep sleep, we are able to reflect that we slept well or dreamt or had a disturbed sleep.  Consciousness is always available as a waker, dreamer and as a sleeper.

The Observer is not observed.  If Brahman is a creator, then when the creator is born is questionable.  All creators are time bound.  In Advaita, the terminology creation is never used.  Everything is a manifestation of consciousness/brahman.  Consciousness is not bound by time.  

A person can do multiple tasks with One mind.  He can scratch his hand or nose and read a book or even cook food.  He can also hear many sounds or see many colours/shapes simultaneously. 

Verse 5 

नोदेति नास्तमेत्येषा न वृद्धिं याति न क्षयं  l

स्वयं विभात्यथान्यानि भासयेत्साधानं विना ll

न उदेति not rise;  न अस्तम् does not set;  एषा this;  न वृद्धिम् does not increase;  याति undergo;  न क्षयं does not deteriorate;  स्वयं by itself;  विभाति shines;  अथ also;  अन्यानि other objects;  विना साधनम् without aids/ efforts;  भासयते illumines/reveals itself

This does not rise, does not set, does not increase, does not undergo deterioration.  It shines by itself and also illumines other objects, without efforts/aids.

Awareness or consciousness is reflected through the medium of mind.  Or instance, when we see our reflection in the mirror, mirror is the mind and we ourselves are consciousness.  If mirror is taken away, even then we are there, but, the reflecting medium is absent.  

In the guru stotram no. 2, atma is described thus: एकम् (One), नित्यम् (permanent), विमलं (pure), अचलम् (remains same), सर्वाधी साक्षी भूतम् (witness in all living beings), भाव अतीतम् (beyond emotions), त्रिगुण रहितम् (devoid of three gunas-satvic, rejasic and tamasic),  सद्गुरुम् तम् नमामि( I salute you).

In bhagwat gita, chapter 2 verse 27: 

जातस्य हि ध्रुवो मृत्युर्ध्रुवं जन्म मृतस्य च । 

तस्मादपरिहार्येSर्थे न त्वं शोचितुमर्हसि lljatasya hi dhruvo mrtyur dhruvam janma mrtasya cha 

tasmadapariharye arthe na tvam shochitum arhasi

For that which is born, death is certain, and that which is dead birth is certain.  Therefore, you ought not to grieve over that which cannot be altered.

Consciousness has no birth or death.  It is ajaha (अजाः).  It is svayambhu ( स्वयम्भू)-self created and does not change in any situation.

जाग्रत्स्वप्नसुषुप्तिषु स्फुटतरा या सम्विदुज्ज्रिंभते

याब्रह्मादिपिपीलिकान्ततनुषु प्रोता जगत् सक्षिणी

Atma/consciousness is available in all the three states- Jagrat, swapna, and sushupti avastha.  In all the three states, it clearly shines. Right from brahma upto an ant, every living thing has Consciousness, available as sakshi of Jagat.  When we say Namaste as a greeting, instead of shaking hands, as practiced in the west adopted the world over, it means we bow down to the supreme being residing in that person.  

The sun illuminates everything.  There is no question of sun rising or setting.  It does not require any other power to illuminate it.  The nature of Sun is self-shining and illuminates everything on its path.  For instance, place a bucket of water in a room, with a small hole in the wall for the sun’s rays to pass.  The rays passing through the hole fall on the water and the room gets illuminated with the reflections falling on the walls around. 

All forms in the universe are modified forms of Brahman.  Mind is so fast, so thoughts too travel very fast.  All thoughts are impermanent and therefore, Mithya.  Sthitha pragya( स्थित प्रज्ञा)  is the nature of Consciousness.  It is neither happy nor sad in any situation.  This same quality can be applied to one’s own personality thereby attempting to achieve a balanced approach in life.  If “ness” from Consciousness and Awareness is removed, only Conscious and Aware remains.  

Katho Upanishad says:  “This Atman is difficult to be known.  It is very subtle.  It cannot be obtained by arguing.”    

​Drg drishya viveka :Chapter 6 – Verse 17-1/9/2016

Swagata bheda:  Let us take our body for illustration.  Our body has many parts and each part of the body is different from the other.  No part is same.  God has given only one heart, mind etc., so the head is different from the heart and likewise we perceive differences we see within our own body and this called swagata bheda.
Sajathiya bheda:  As an individual we have differences between man, woman, transgender, etc.  even though we are of the same species, there are differences.  This is sajathiya bheda.

Vijathiya bheda: We are different from a plant, tree, mountain, etc.  this is called vijathiya bheda.

Avidya leads to adhyasa.  Adhyasa leads to adhyaropa or superimposition.  Ahyaropa leads to ahankara rising in the mind.  ahankara triggers desires along with 6- afflictions if a desire doesn’t get the right result.  Desires lead to karma. Karmas leading one to accrue punya and papam.  When one accrues punya nad papam, a body is required to either enjoy or suffer.  This is the Jiva or soul which transmigrates continuously and endlessly, till such time when the jiva drops the bheda, in the wake of knowledge.  At that moment jiva resolves into paramatma and the jiva does not exist any more.

Just like a wave, even though it travels several miles and crashes on to the shore, it has no recourse other than to retreating into the water. So how can jiva have an independent existence outside of the atma?  

Jiva thinks of himself as the body-sense-mind complex.  ‘I have a mind’, ‘I am so & so’, ‘I have ahankara’.  Aham buddhih (अहं बुद्धि: )  is making the jiva think he is the doer and makes jiva do karma generating results or karma phalam  (कर्म फलं ).  He lives in samsara which is an endless cycle of birth or death.  Ignorance (अविद्या:) about the self is the first cause of this samsara.  Avarna shakthi (आवरण शक्ति:) of maya covers and the ultimate truth is not seen.  The person has erroneous perception.  He has a wrong notion about himself.  This is adhyasah (अध्यासा:).  The wave thinks I am independent and I will go my way.  Adhyasa develops into ahankara.  It tells you that I am this/so &so and I am doing this.  There is a superimposition on the self.  Ahankara tells whether to study or not, to go out or not, giving the decision making powers.  Ahankara gives power to the mind, mind gives powers to the sense powers and sense organs perform actions.  They report back through sense powers to the mind which reports to the ahankara and ahnkara tells ‘I did’- ahankrith (अहंकृती:).  When the pleasure is sought it is through the sense organs.  You are living in a small world saying ‘I am in control and I am an enjoyer’.  Desires trigger actions and if successful and able to achieve everything, you become ‘enjoyer’.  Subtle body illuminates the gross body.  Gross body illumines the external objects.  Tracing backwards we have one illuminator.  In the wake of the sun rise, all the objects in the universe are illuminated simultaneously.  Likewise, consciousness illumines or shines like sun through upadhis.  Sense powers illumine the mind and mind is illumined by consciousness.  Ultimate truth can be arrived at by negation of all the impermanent objects.

‘I am’ ahankara and this aham budhi is making you think that you are the doer with the body-mind-sense complex.  This makes you do the karma as a ‘karta’.  Samsara is an endless cycle of birth and death.  Good karma will reap benefits and bad karma will make you suffer.  Avidya is ignorance about the self.  Ignorance or avidya is something that covers the atma and is the avarna shakthi of Maya.  The person does not know the truth about himself.  Adhyasa means wrong notion about himself-misconception.  Wave does not know its source is in the water.  Avidya is ignorance and adhyasa being misconception, it is the ahankara telling ‘I am’ and that is superimposed on the atma.  There is an adhyaropa of ahankara on your Self.  It makes you think ‘I am separate’.  Atma is one and non-dual.  

Ahankara tells you whether to do or not to do.  It makes choices or decisions and the person does karma.  Ahankara lends power to the mind and mind gives power to the sense powers which empowers the sense organs to perform actions.  After the actions are performed, the sense organs report to the mind and which gives the ahamkara the notion ‘I am enjoying’.  Due to the cause of desire actions are triggered.  The desires are achieved, you are happy.  If the desire is not achieved, all the six afflictions will arise.  From a simple thought of not being able to know his own self, Jiva gets stuck further and further into different afflictions, unable to come out of it.  For thinking peacefully, mind must be focussed and stable.  If there is jealousy or attachments towards one person, then all the thoughts are focussed on that one person alone.  The reason for jiva to exist is because of this notion.  

When the Jiva drops this notion and develops a vision and understands that everything is preordained and ‘I am not doing anything’ and only all the upadhis are doing it, he no longer remains a jiva.  Wave has no other place to go but surrender to the water and it becomes one with the water losing its existence.  Likewise, in the wake of knowledge, we go to the paramarthika model and become one with paramatma.  Due to upadhis we get a feeling we are different.  Consciousness which is entering the mind is called Jiva who is a person in the transactional model. 

In reality our swarupa is calm and tranquil and thoughts –like ripples in still water, are considered the real nature of the Atma, which is untrue.  There are three types of realities: paramarthika-absolute reality, vyavaharika reality-transactional,  pratibhasika reality-reflectional (परमार्थिका, व्यवहारिका, प्रतिभासिका ).

Verse 17

अस्य  जीवत्वमरोपत्साक्षिण्यप्यवभासते  l

आव्रुत्तौ  तु  विनष्टायां  भेदे  भातेSपयाति  तत्  ll

अस्य Of this (empirical/embodied self);  जीवत्वम् the nature of being a jiva;  आरोपात् through superimposition;  साक्षिणि in the sakshin (witness);  अपि also;  अवभासते appears;  आव्रुत्तौ the veiling or concealing power तु but;  विनष्टायां by disappearance;  भेदे the difference; भाते having become clear;  तत् that (the idea of being jiva)  अपयाति disappears.  

The nature of the embodied(with upadhi of body) self appears through false superimposition (vikshepa/projection power of maya) on the sakshin.  Also with the disappearance of the veiling power, the distinction between the seer and the seen/object becomes clear.  With this the jiva character of the sakshin also disappears.  (This is possible only through the study of scriptures.)

The jiva’s nature has superimposition of attributes on the atma-‘I am short’, I am rich’, etc.  He will speak only in terms of vyavaharika.  In reality atma is only a pure witness and only a sakshi.  In the presence of witness everything gets carried out.  Due to transactional nature of the jiva, there is superimposition on the atma of attributes on his true Self.

Pot cannot say it is different from clay.  A pot is a modified form of clay.  Pot always existed in the clay, in an unmanifest form.  Potter knows to create a pot from the clay.  Actually there is no creation involved.  Clay always existed and only the nam rupa changed to pot.  Similarly, Jiva is a manifest form of consciousness.  Atma does not create anything because it is a non-doer.  Sun’s rays do not do anything.  Its nature is to illumine.  Fire’s nature is to heat and they are inseparable.  We only see the fire but do not feel the heat.  Sun and its rays are inseparable.  We too, do not have an independent existence as Jiva.  Our own swarupa is to illumine.  Without body-mind-sense complex, we exist as true consciousness in an unmanifest form.  Just like a pot and clay being the manifest of same thing, jiva is also a manifest form of consciousness and an intrinsic part of paramarthika reality.  If the pot breaks, then the clay is in unmanifes form again.  Only the thought of making a pot brings a pot into existence.  Due to varied upadhis, jiva looks different with every upadhi.  The essence of wave depends upon the water.  If water is not present then wave also disappears.  In deep sleep state, your mind is resolved and therefore, you do not do any karma.  Therefore there is no papam or punyam.  

Body is not required for the person who understands that ‘I am not the body’.  One has to know this only in the wake of knowledge.  Person who knows brahman will never say ‘I know brahman’ but will say ‘I am brahman’.  Atma cannot be talked about because it does not have attributes.  No words can describe it.  If you speak about a cow, you have a vision of the cow with a fixed description.  Jiva thinks and has a view-‘I know this’ and superimposes everything on atma/consciousness.  It appears as though atma is doing activity or karma.  A gold bangle – nama rupa superimposes on gold.  Its truth is gold. There is a distinction between substance-vastu and substratum.  

When the covering disappears, true self is revealed.  Due to the superimposition of jiva upon atma, in the process, there is avrutou – power of maya.  Maya has two powers, avarna and vikshepa Shakti.  When the covering of ignorance is removed and real truth comes to light, all bhedam disappear.  Truth becomes evident.  

In the ocean, we see foam, waves, all are water only.  It is not having any separate molecular property other than water’s property.  If we test samples of wave and foam from the same water, in the wake of gyanam/knowledge, we know foam and wave are nama rupa for the water.  Likewise jiva is a nama rupa and there is only one atma.  

Jiva is an enjoyer and therefore karta and bhokta.  He is ignorant of self.  Jiva comes into existence due to avidya and from avidya gives rise to adhyasa, from adhyas arises an adhyaropa on sakshi, then he gets ahankariti leading to karma which becomes as ‘I am the doer’.  Papam and punyam requires a body.  When the covering is removed, in the wake of knowledge, all the bheda or differences disappear.  Then there is only ONE and that is YOU.  No more swagata, sajathiya, and vijathiya bheda exist in the wake of knowledge.